Project on Branding
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PROJECT REPORT ON “EFFECT OF BRANDING ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR - A STUDY IN RELATION TO FASHION INDUSTRY” Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of
“BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” 2008-11
Submitted To: Mrs. Astha Sharma and Dr. Richa Gupta Faculty Guide
Submitted By: Sudhanshu Leekha BBA (Gen.) 6th Sem. 0501341708
IDEAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Page 1
16x Karkardooma Institutional Area, Delhi)
This is to certify that Sudhanshu leekha pursuing Bachelor of Business Administration from Ideal Institute of Management and Technology has completed this project under my supervision and guidance. He has taken care of all necessary aspects and shown interest and sincerity during the completion of the project report on Effect Of Branding On Consumer Buying Behavior to my full satisfaction. I certify that this project is up to my expectations as per the guidelines laid down by Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University.
Mrs. Astha Sharma and Dr. Richa Gupta
Management is a profession wherein no work can be accomplished without the help and assistance of a large number of people, be it your superiors or subordinates. A good manager is the one who knows how to get the work accomplished with the help of his colleagues. As future managers, we are taught to practice such behavior at every step. This project is also a part of it. I would like to thank Ideal Institute of Management and Technology for providing me with this great opportunity to work on this report and choosing my own topic of interest. Further I would also like to thank everyone in Ideal Institute of Management and Technology with whom I have come in contact during the preparation of this dissertation. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mrs. Astha Sharma and Dr. Richa Gupta for their extended support during the study and preparation of the report. All have been profoundly instrumental in making the project undertaken the source of knowledge providing all the support and necessary guidance.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Brand is a Guarantee, an assurance for a defined standard of quality for the first time and for every time but not the vice versa. Brand is name or logo that plays the role in the mind of the customer. Brands do not compete in the product area but compete for the mind space of the customer. A brand once established in the mind of the customer becomes indelible when customer identifies itself with that particular Brand. Branding is an effective marketing strategy tool that has been used with frequent success in the past. Branding can be an effective and powerful tool for all types of business organizations. If brand owners use their product correctly, the payoffs can be substantial. However, if brands are mismanaged, the results can be damaging. This report is aimed to investigate the effect of brand on consumer buying behavior. How much consumers are prepared to pay for branded products, how important they consider price, brand or other factors during their purchasing decisions. The Report aimed at comprehensive literature review on branding, brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand equity and brand perceptions, price sensitivity and willingness to pay.
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Chapter 1 – Introduction
1.2 Project Aims & Objectives
1.3 Limitations of the Project
2. Chapter 2 – Literature Review 2.1 Understanding Branding
2.1.1 History of Branding
2.1.2 Branding in today’s Markets
2.1.3 Importance of Branding
2.1.4 Development of Brand Equity
2.1.5 The Competitive Advantage of Brand Loyalty
2.2 Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior
2.2.1 Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior
2.2.2 Consumer Buying Decision Process
2.3 Branding’s Influence on Consumer Purchasing Behavior
2.3.1 Impact on the Consumer Learning Process
2.3.2 Impact on Consumers’ Perception of Brands
2.3.3 Impact on Consumers’ Attitudes towards Brands
2.4.1 Usefulness of Positioning
2.4.2 Brand Positioning
2.4.3 Elements of Positioning
3. Chapter3 - Research Methodology
3.2 Research Approach
3.2.1 Secondary Data
3.2.2 Primary Data
3.3 Data Collection Tools
4. Chapter 4 - Findings & Analysis Page 2
4.1 Secondary Research Findings
4.1.1 Current Consumer Trends
4.1.2 Top Brands in India
4.2 Primary Research Findings
5. Chapter 5 - Conclusions & Recommendations
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction “Brands are like human beings. They are born, fed and nurtured, made strong and responsible so that they can be faithful friends of the people (customers), form mutually beneficial and satisfying relationships with them and become their companions for life. Such brands, make their parents (organization or corporate) proud of them. The best brands are the ones who help in forming and sustaining strong long term “parentbrand-people” relationships. These brands form the potential for present growth and future expansion. They help the organizations conquer peaks at the time of booms and stay afloat and swim at times of depression.” We come across a number of brands in our daily lives. Our morning starts with using a toothpaste (Colgate, Pepsodent or Close-up), using a bathing soap (Lux, Fairglow or Cinthol) and shampoo (Clinic All Clear or Vatika), wearing clothes ( Allen Solly, Levi’s or Raymonds), breakfast bread (Britannia or Modern) and butter (Amul) or jam (Kissan), lunch and dinner (Nature Fresh or Pillsbury flour and Safal vegetables), morning and evening tea and coffee (Tetley, Nescafe or Bru), going out in a car (Hyundai Santro, Honda Accord or Mercedes Benz). Page 2
Talking on the cell phone (Motorola, Nokia, Siemens or Samsung), watching television in the evening (LG, Sony or Philips) or listening to music (Philips or Apple) etc. But how often do we think of what all a company does to put a positive imprint (fight for a shelf space) in the mind of the customer? Today nearly all the companies are focusing more and more on building strong brands. The concept of brand equity and its management has come to the fore like never before. More and more companies are refocusing on select strong brands. This project is thus a timely stuffy of the importance of brands, what it takes to build them, what benefits do they give to different stakeholders (organization, distributors and customers), how can they be leveraged, what is the impact of modern technology on branding, branding on the web, branding in mergers and acquisitions etc. examples have been given and cases discussed at every suitable point to bring out an application oriented understanding of “building and managing brands”.
1.2 Project Aims and Objectives Importance of understanding branding and its impact on modern day markets is vital to the health and growth of most industries. The aim of this report is to put into perspective the functional values of branding as well as assess its role in the consumer purchase decision-making process. • Understanding the concepts of branding and consumer behavior. • To study the effect of brands on consumer buying behavior in relation to Readymade garments.
• To analyze the branding strategies adopted by some of the companies in the readymade garments to woo the consumers into buying their products. • To do a comparative study of the branding strategies adopted by the companies in the readymade garments. Page 2
“EFFECT OF BRANDING ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR-A STUDY IN RELATION TO FASHION INDUSTRY” In order to fully answer this research question, the following objectives have been set: • Set a valid and sustainable research question in order to achieve a nonbias and accurate understanding on the topic in question; • Present the key concepts behind branding, its values and its usage in modern day marketing campaigns by reviewing current literature pertaining to the subject matter; • Determine whether a correlation between consumer identities and perceived brand identities is present; • Determine the impact of branding on the consumer purchase decisionmaking process
1.3 Limitations of the Project • This project is limited due to time constraint as it involves a lot of complex variables which require a detailed study over a period of time. • The project did not cover the effect of branding on a very large scale. Only a small population was studied, which may not be enough to show correct picture. • The consumers were very reluctant to answer the question and the response may be biased.
CHAPTER- 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Page 2
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Understanding Branding BRAND The word “Brand” owes its origin to the Norwegian word “brand” which means to burn. Farmers used to put some identification mark on the body of the livestock to distinguish their possession. Products are what companies make, but customers buy brands. Therefore marketers resorted to branding in order to distinguish their offerings from similar products and services provided by their competitors. Additionally, it carries an inherent assurance to the customers that the quality of a purchase will be similar to earlier purchases of the same brand.
A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.
BRANDING Branding is a process, a tool, a strategy and an orientation. • Branding is the process by which a marketer tries to build long term relationship with the customers by learning their needs and wants so that the offering (brand) could satisfy their mutual aspirations. •
Branding can be used as a differentiation strategy when the product cannot be easily distinguished in terms of tangible features (which invariably happens in case of many services, durables etc.) or in products which are perceived as a commodity (e.g. cement, fertilizers, salt, potato chips etc.).
Brand building is a conscious customer satisfaction orientation process. The brand owner tries to retain customers to its fold over their competitors by a mix of hardware software because when a customer feels satisfied he / she develop a kind of loyalty for the same.
Kotler (1999) expands on the concept of identity by stating that a brand is capable of conveying up to six different levels of meaning to a targeted audience. This is known as the “Six Dimensions of The Brand” Attributes
A brand will communicate specific attributes, such as prestige
A brand strengthens a product’s attributes by communicating a set of benefits that makes it more attractive
A brand represents a company’s core values and belief system
A brand is representative or target a target audiences socio cultural characteristics A Brand can project behavioral personality patterns of targeted consumers The brand, in some cases, can emulate the end user
From the consumers’ perspective, brand names are as fundamental as the product itself in the sense that they simplify the purchasing process, guarantee quality and at times, form as a basis of self-expression. Hence, should a company market a brand name as nothing more than “just a name”; it would be missing the entire purpose of product branding. The challenge lies in developing a deep set of meanings for the brand. Once a target market segment can visualize all six dimensions of the brand, it will have established a strong rapport within the consumers’ purchase decision-making process.
2.1.1 History of Branding Brands in the field of marketing, originated in the 19th century with the advent of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. These factories, generating mass-produced goods, needed to sell their products in a wider market, to a customer base familiar only with local goods. It quickly became apparent that a generic package of soap had difficulty competing with familiar, local products. The packaged goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public could place just as much trust in the non-local product. Many brands of that era, such as Uncle Ben's rice and Kellogg's breakfast cereal furnish illustrations of the problem. The manufacturers wanted their products to appear and feel as familiar as the local farmers' Page 2
produce. From there, with the help of advertising, manufacturers quickly learned to associate other kinds of brand values, such as youthfulness, fun or luxury, with their products. This kick started the practice we now know as "branding". We tend to think of branding as a modern day phenomenon. Certainly, during the late 1990s and the early 2000s, branding emerged as a significant area of emphasis not only for companies and their products, but also for municipalities, universities, other non-profit organizations and even individuals. Branding became ubiquitous. Many of us also know that Proctor & Gamble and other consumer product companies began branding their products in earnest in the mid-to-late 1800s. But more interesting to me is how far back in time branding goes. For instance, companies that sold patented medicines and tobacco began branding their products as early as the early 1800s. Around the same time, some fraternities and sororities branded their pledges (literally) during initiation rites as a form of identification and bonding, a practice that has long since been identified as hazing and therefore abandoned. But that is still recent history -- relatively. Between the 1600s and 1800s, criminals were branded (again literally) as a form of punishment and identification. For instance, in England, they branded an S on a person's cheek, while in France; they branded a fleur de lis on the shoulder. As repugnant as it may be to us today, slaves were also branded roughly during the same time period to connote ownership. In the 1200s, England required bread makers, goldsmiths and silversmiths to put their marks on goods, primarily to insure honesty in measurement. In the Medieval times, printers also used marks as did paper makers (watermarks) and various other craft guilds. Page 2
But branding goes back even further. As far back as 1300 BC, potter's marks were used on pottery and porcelain in China, Greece, Rome and India. Branding of cattle and livestock go back as far as 2000 BC. And archaeologists have found evidence of advertising among Babylonians dating back to 3000 BC. So, how far back does branding go? At least 5000 years.
What is more interesting to me are underlying needs from which branding originated: to insure honesty, provide quality assurance, identify source or ownership, hold producers responsible, differentiate, as a form of identification and to create emotional bonding. Interestingly, people value brands for many other same reasons today. Clearly, history provides some insight and perspective on modern day branding.
2.1.2 Branding in Today’s Markets Page 1
A central function of branding is the facilitation of the consumer choice process. Due to the complexity of having to select a product amongst thousands of similar offerings, consumers will instinctively attempt to simplify their choice process by selecting brands that have satisfied them in the past. Thus, one can conclude that pleasant past experiences is highly conducive to consumers associating benefits to a brand. One can conclude that a central function of branding is its ability to negate the need for a consumer to seek out information when a need or a want has been recognized, but rather, lead him to a brand that has been satisfying in the past. One must acknowledge however, that frequent purchasing of a brand cannot always be linked to previous experiences, but can alternatively be formed by embedded perceptions. A consumer might strongly favour a brand with no prior purchasing experience. This type of consumer behavior is based on stimulus provided by direct exposure to advertising campaigns, a company’s PR efforts or even a high concentration of local distribution in an area that is in close proximity to a consumer. In terms of companies’ views on branding, it can induce the natural differentiation of their offerings, which ultimately, will produce a state of competitive advantage. Differentiation can only allow for competitive advantage if the cost of differentiating is significantly lower than the revenue earned by the sales. Differential advantage allows companies to showcase their offer in respects to other competitors in the same marketplace.
2.1.3 Importance of Branding Principle of branding - A set of related products that are manufactured by a company and are sold as a family of products under the marquee or banner of a brand have a certain recognition and a place of respect within that very market. Branding the product thus, is a means of Page 1
creation of identification and recognition in the market. It is not just a process of getting a trademark and logo, but it is process of evolving as a well reputed name on the market and field. A very well known brand that has become the identity of the market itself is the office equipment manufacturer 'Xerox'. Though it is a company's name, the act of photocopying is termed as 'Xeroxing'.
Importance of Branding in Business From the point of view of a business, the process of branding involves making of a trademark and a good name. A registered trademark and a name ensure individuality and uniqueness of a particular product or family of products. The lawful registration of the trademark means that any competitor cannot copy any of the elements and names of the products. Branding can be done for anything that can be promoted in the consumer's market, may it be a simple label, a family of products or an umbrella brand. People can also have a personal brand. The primary advantage of branding is that it is safeguarded from unlawful activities and at the same time, it is also a way of developing a good reputation in the market. Often you might see some new product carry the tag that says 'from the makers of …brand', well this is another advantage of branding. When a business who owns an already famous brand wants to launch a new brand in the market, they can use the pre-earned goodwill and reputation for the new launch. The advantage is that, people are bound to purchase the new products out of curiosity. Page 2
Importance of Branding in Marketing Marketing primarily involves the study of demand in a market and creating a response in the form of supply. In the field of marketing, the brand name plays an important role as it helps the people to promote the brand name and its merits quite easily. Apart from that, it also becomes possible for the marketing people to generate intelligence information about the brands popularity and also what people exactly want from the brand owning company. As a result of a brand loyal group of consumers, it also becomes easier for marketing department to asses regular and promised demand. Apart from that, schemes such as free gifts and discounts often boost the sales as the brand is an important icon of the market.
Importance of Branding in Advertising Advertising is often considered to be a part of marketing however; branding a particular product helps the advertisers to provide catchy logos and advertisements. As a brand name can never be copied, Page 3
advertisers face lesser heat from unauthenticated advertisements, effectively, their advertisement creation gets protected. Apart from that advertisers can initiate fearless and independent advertising as due to the process of branding, the consumers are already well aware of the product, its identity and nature. In short, the importance of branding can be summed up in simple words 'successful branding is a process that generates revenue that cannot be counted, it creates a reputation that is felt not seen, and it is an asset that one cannot show on a balance sheet.
2.1.4 Development of Brand Equity The amount of clout controlled by different brands will vary. Some are deeply embedded in global culture and are thus, highly recognizable, whilst other are virtually unknown to consumers. When attempting to Page 4
place a value on a brand, one refers to “brand equity”. Chay (1991) defines brand equity as a “set of associations and behaviors on the part of a brand’s customers, channel members, and Parent Corporation that permits the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name and that gives the brand a strong, sustainable, and differential advantage over competitors”. This explanation creates a clear link between a product’s values, be it financial or intangible, and a brand name.
Using the financial perspective, one measures brand equity by determining how much more consumers are willing to pay in direct relation to the brand name. This gives marketers essential insight into the financial value of the brand. When viewing brand equity from this perspective, one must naturally consider overhead, such as costs of advertising. Using the consumer-based perspective entails considering how the attitude strength of consumers is directly influenced by the brand name. Page 2
This perspective operates under the assumption that the consumer has had extensive experience with the product in question. The consideration and development of brand equity is vital as its benefits are wide reaching. One can consider brand equity as an asset, as it can increase cash flow via the widening of a company’s market share and the allowance of higher pricing policies.
2.1.5 The Competitive Advantage of Brand Loyalty There is a palpable correlation between the efficient branding of a product or service, and the display of brand loyalty in consumer purchasing patterns. In this instance, loyalty is defined as a “deeply held commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future, thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior". Brand loyalty is a direct consequence of the ability to better satisfy the desires of a customer that main competitors do. It now becomes clear that a modern day marketer’s principal objective is to build sustainable forms of loyalty between a company and its consumers, instead of focusing solely on the individual sale of products. Brand Loyalty is the consumer's conscious or unconscious decision, expressed through intention or behavior, to repurchase a brand continually. It occurs because the consumer perceives that the brand offers the right product features, image, or level of quality at the right price. Consumer behavior is habitual because habits are safe and familiar. In order to create brand loyalty, advertisers must break consumer habits, help them acquire new habits, and reinforce those Page 2
habits by reminding consumers of the value of their purchase and encourage them to continue purchasing those products in the future. The image surrounding a company's brand is the principal source of its competitive advantage and is therefore a valuable strategic asset. Unfortunately, many companies are not adept at disseminating a strong, clear message that not only distinguishes their brand from the competitors', but distinguishes it in a memorable and positive manner. The challenge for all brands is to avoid the pitfalls of portraying a muddled or negative image, and instead, create a broad brand vision or identity that recognizes a brand as something greater than a set of attributes that can be imitated or surpassed. In fact, a company should view its brand to be not just a product or service, but as an overall brand image that defines a company’s philosophies. A brand needs more than identity; it needs a personality. Just like a person without attentiongrabbing characteristics, a brand with no personality can easily be passed right over. A strong symbol or company logo can also help to generate brand loyalty by making it quickly identifiable.
2.2 Understanding Consumer Buying Behavior Page 2
Definition Consumer behavior refers to the mental and emotional process and the observable behavior of consumers during searching, purchasing and post consumption of a product or service Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It blends the elements from psychology, sociology, socio psychology, anthropology and economics. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general. Buyer behavior has two aspects: the final purchase activity visible to any observer and the detailed or short decision process that may involve the interplay of a number of complex variables not visible to anyone.
2.2.1 Factors Affecting Consumer Buying Behavior Consumer buying behavior is influenced by the major three factors: 1. Social Factors 2. Psychological Factors 3. Personal Factors. 1. Social Factors Social factors refer to forces that other people exert and which affect consumers’ purchase behavior. These social factors can include culture and subculture, roles and family, social class and reference groups. Example: By taking into consideration Reference group, these can influence/ affect the consumer buying behavior. Reference group refers to a group with whom an individual identifies herself/ himself and the extent to which that person assumes many values, attitudes or behavior of group members. Reference groups can be family, school or college, work group, club membership, citizenship etc. Reference groups serve as one of the primary agents of consumer socialization and learning and can be influential enough to induce not only socially acceptable consumer behavior but also socially unacceptable and even personal destructive behavior. For example, if fresher student joins a college / university, he/she will meet different people and form a group, in that group there can be behavior patterns of values, for example style of clothing, handsets which most of group member prefer or even destructive behavior such as excessive consumption of alcohol, use of harmful and addictive drugs etc. So, Page 2
according to how an individual references him / her to that particular reference group, this will influence and change his/her buying behavior. 2. Psychological Factors These are internal to an individual and generate forces within that influence her/his purchase behavior. The major forces include motives, perception, learning, attitude and personality. Example: Attitude is an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual and cognitive processes with respect to some aspect of our environment. Consumers form attitude towards a brand on the basis of their beliefs about the brand. For example, consumers of Sony products might have the belief that the products offered by Sony are durable; this will influence those customers to buy Sony products due to this attitude towards the brand. 3. Personal Factors These include those aspects that are unique to a person and influence purchase behavior. These factors include demographic factors, lifestyle, and situational factors. Example: Lifestyle is an indicator of how people live and express themselves on the basis of their activities, interests, and opinions. Lifestyle dimension provide a broader view of people about how they spend their time the importance of things in their surroundings and their beliefs on broad issues associated with life and living and themselves. This is influenced by demographic factors and personality. Page 2
E.g. - A CEO or Manager is likely to buy more formal clothes, ties and shoes or PDAs and less informal clothes like jeans as compared to a Mechanic or Civil engineer. So according to their lifestyle and profession, the buying behavior of people differs from one another.
2.2.2 Consumer Buying Decision Process Consumer buying decision process is the processes undertaken by consumer in regard to a potential market transaction before, during and after the purchase of a product or service. Consumer decision making process generally involves five stages: A. Problem Recognition Purchase decision making process begins when a buyer becomes aware of an unsatisfied need or problem. This is the vital stage in buying decision process, because without recognizing the need or want, an individual would not seek to buy goods or service.
• • • • •
There are several situations that can cause problem recognition, these include: Depletion of stock Dissatisfaction with goods in stock Environmental Changes Change in Financial Situation Marketer Initiated Activities It’s when a person recognizes that she cannot make a call from her mobile phone that’s when she recognizes that her phone has been damaged i.e. the phone has hardware problems and needs to be repaired or buying a new piece.
A. Information Search Page 2
After the consumer has recognized the need, he / she will try to find the means to solve that need. First he will recall how he used to solve such kind of a problem in the past, this is called nominal decision making. Secondly, a consumer will try to solve the problem by asking a friend or goes to the market to seek advice for which product will best serve his need, this is called limited decision making. • • • •
Sources of information include: Personal sources Commercial Sources Public sources Personal experience
A. Alternatives Evaluation Consumers’ evaluates criteria refer to various dimension; features, characteristics and benefits that a consumer desires to solve a certain problem. Product features and its benefit is what influence consumer to prefer that particular product. The consumer will decide which product to buy from a set of alternative products depending on each unique feature that the product offers and the benefit he / she can get out of that feature. B. Purchase Action This stage involves selection of brand and the retail outlet to purchase such a product. Retail outlet image and its location are important. Consumer usually prefers a nearby retail outlet for minor shopping and they can willingly go to a far away store when they purchase items which are of higher values and which involve higher sensitive purchase decision. After Page 2
selecting where to buy and what to buy, the consumer completes the final step of transaction by either cash or credit.
C. Post-Purchase Actions Consumer favorable post-purchase evaluation leads to satisfaction. Satisfaction with the purchase is basically a function of the initial performance level expectation and perceived performance relative to those expectations. Consumer tends to evaluate their wisdom on the purchase of that particular product. This can result to consumer experiencing post purchase dissatisfaction. If the consumer’s perceived performance level is below expectation and fail to meet satisfaction this will eventually cause dissatisfaction, and so the brand and/ or the outlet will not be considered by the consumer in the future purchases. This might cause the consumer to initiate complaint behavior and spread negative word-of-mouth concerning that particular product.
2.3 Branding’s Influence on Consumer Purchasing Behavior The preceding section of this literature reviewed has sought to define the term branding and explain its functions and values as an instrumental marketing tool used in attaining differential and competitive advantage. The following section of this literature review will seek to enlighten the impact branding has on the consumer decision-making process. First however, one must gain clear insight into the definition of consumer buying behavior in order to understand the impact branding has on it. In defining “consumer buying behavior”, one may refer to Assael (1987) who distinguishes four types of consumer buying behaviors. He bases these four consumer types on the varying degrees of involvement and the degree of differentiation amongst the brands in question.
Consumers who are described as displaying complex buying behavior will expand their beliefs regarding a particular product as a starting point. This stage will eventually lead them to develop positive attitudes regarding the product. These intermediary stages lead them to the final stage of their behavioral pattern, where they consciously make the choice of purchasing the product. Referring to the Assael’s model; one will notice this type of consumer engages in highly involved purchasing experiences being fully aware of the range of brands available and their levels of differentiation. Assael (1987) classifies consumer who exhibit Dissonance-reducing behavior as consumer who are highly involved in the purchasing experience, however see few differences between brands. For this reason, the consumer will seek information on the differentiation of the product offerings and will not be particularly price sensitive when seeking functionality. In the event that this consumer finds him or herself in a market that displays low levels of differentiation, the Page 1
consumer might result to purchasing influenced by convenience. Like consumers who display complex buying behavior, consumers with dissonance-reducing behavior will seek to establish personal beliefs regarding the product. If fostered adequately, these beliefs with eventually transform into attitudes regarding the product offerings. These attitudes, if favourable, will lead to a thoughtful purchase. Assael (1987) considered consumes displaying habitual buying behavior as consumers who did not experience the same sequence as the previous two behavioral types. Instead of basing their decision-making process on seeking product information pertaining to functionality or characteristics, this type of consumer will purchase based on information gathered passively, via the company’s promotional efforts, by it through the medium of television, radio or print advertising. This behavioral type, as can be seen on Assael’s (1987) model, with low-level involvement products. Differentiating this consumer type is the fact that they being the process with beliefs already embedded in their mind, which they have learnt passively, rather than actively. Variety-seekers are the last behavioral type contained in Assael’s (1987) model. Their typical buying situation is summarized by low-level involvement in a market that displays high levels of product differentiation. Common to this type of consumer, is “brand switching”, in order to satisfy their need for diversification. In order to fully ascertain the effects that branding has on the consumer decision making process, the Howard-Sheth Decision-making model by Howard and Sheth (1969) is used that explains not only the process of consumer decision-making during purchasing activities, but one that facilitates the understanding of pre and post purchasing activities as well.
The model’s core assumption lies in that the key to determining behavior exhibited by consumers is to fully understand the consumer thought process. The Howard-Sheth model illustrates that cognitive decision-making is the process in which consumers mentally process information that influences his or her selection of brands.
2.3.1 Impact on The Consumer Learning Process At its most basic definition, one can define the consumer learning process as being a time period in which a customer is heavily exposed to the branding process of a product or service. The branding process can Page 1
include any aspect of the promotional strategy, including audio/visual forms of promotion. By learning from this information, whether it is a conscious process or not, the consumer will develop strong feelings towards a brand. For marketers, branding has a vital effect on the learning process, because it is self-growing. Once consumers start to purchase product, others will vicariously learn from them. Vicarious learning is when consumers begin to copy the behavioral patterns of their peers by making changes in their own lives to reflect what they have “vicariously” learnt. In searching for a more academic view on consumer learning, one can understand the process as modifications to a consumer’s behavioral patterns that are the direct consequence of either past experiences or information gathered during all aspects of the purchase decision-making process. These modifications are caused by information that has essentially been saved as a set of meaningful associations in the consumer’s mind. These above-mentioned associations provide the consumer with link to the brand image of offerings in respects to the promotional tools used to further this brand image. These tools include both physical characteristics of the product as well as pricing policies. All the elements that are retained by the consumer stem from what they have been exposed to during their individual learning process. This is ultimately, what will shape their views and attitudes in regards to brands. It has been found that the learning process discussed above acts as a catalyst in creating emotional and evaluating responses. These responses are embedded in the consumer’s memory span, which will be recalled when faced with a purchase decision-making process. Thus, understanding the learning process is the key to marketers who seek to efficiently use promotional methods to influence consumers, because the imprints they create in the mind of consumer will later on be recalled when selecting a product or brand. Page 2
2.3.2 Impact on Consumers’ Perception of Brands One may refer to Foxall (1980), where Engel defines perception as “the process whereby stimuli are received and interpreted by the individual and translated into a response”. At this point, it is important to note that this process is unique to each individual, as perception is highly dependent on a consumer’s individual beliefs structure. Perception is crucial in the decision-making process. In a market where branding is used, products are no longer only purchased for their functional characteristics, but primarily for the social or in some cases, psychological identity they express. Building on these concepts, One can elaborate on these concepts by outlining two determinants that influence a consumer’s perception of brands. These two factors are stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization. Whether a consumer has the ability to “discriminate” between the various methods used to stimulate a consumer? When a customer is introduced to a brand, whether this is done via advertising, packaging, word of mouth marketing or any other form of stimuli that affected them during their decision-making process, their levels of awareness of the brand will gradually increase via their ability to learn. Once their level of brand awareness has increased, their purchase decision-making process will be influenced by their perception of the brand in question. The perception of brands is crucial to both the marketer and the customer. If one considers that frequency of purchases varies from consumer to consumer, one can understand that the influence of perception is vital. By providing relevant information for the consumer market, marketers enable the creation of symbolic links between the Page 2
consumer and the brand image. Thus, consumers will have the relevant tools needed to distinguish between the brands on offer and therefore be persuaded in their selection. In the event that a consumer is a new user with no product experience, he or she will not be able to make relevant decisions based on the actual product. Thus, the brand image again, becomes vital in directing the consumer to a specific product. In order to better understand the relevance of branding on the consumer purchase decision making process, four key factors that are responsible for directing a potential consumer towards a particular brand are referred. Perceived Quality
In time, consumer will have faith in a brand’s integrity via their perceived quality of the brand in question
Building Excellent Service
Standing Out Consumer’s
Investing in Differential Markets
When a company implements excellent after service sales, this endorses the perceived quality of the brand and facilitates activities in the pre and post purchase moments of the decisionmaking process. As discussed previously, this is key in the creation of loyal customers the By striving to differentiate one’s brand from another, companies hope to become embedded in the user’s culture and mind. This is the most effective way to insure consumers positively perceive the brand and product. This eventually leads to extremes forms of competitive advantage When one seeks to establish a brand, it is essential to select a market in which it is Page 1
possible to create differentiation. Otherwise, the concepts of branding will not be possible. Brands have a large impact on the perceived risks consumers associate with the consumer purchase decision-making process. There to be six risks that are perceived by consumers during all aspects of the decisionmaking process and further outlines how brands can appease the consumer’s mind in regards to these perceived risks. The first perceived risk a consumer might encounter is one of a functional nature. The consumer might worry whether the product will meet his or her expectations. In the creation of a trustworthy brand, marketers seek to raise the level of perceived quality in order to specifically address this risk. Consumer might also perceive a physical and/or psychological risk that might dissuade them from continuing the purchasing decision-making process. A fourth possible risk that might be perceived by the consumer is one of an economic nature. Price sensitive consumers will question whether the product is in fact properly valued at the quoted asking price. Again, marketers will strive to counter this by highlighting the perceived value of a product in the branding process. If properly done, consumer can become price insensitive by forming a strong bond to a brand and therefore isolating him or herself from competitors. Socially speaking, a fifth risk a consumer might perceived to be detrimental to the buying process is whether his or her selection of a brand will cause embarrassment in a social setting, amongst his or her peers. Marketers address this issue in the creation of the brand image. By emulating current market trends and fashions, marketers strive to Page 2
identify and differentiate their products as being the selected choice of revered people. . Yet another economic risk consumer might consider, is the opportunity cost of seeking out alternative products, and should the selected one fail to satisfy their needs and wants. Reflected in a loyal consumer base, is a brands ability to deliver on the satisfaction guarantee. Thus, one can understand that branding is the key in addressing this issue in the consumer’s mind.
2.3.3 Impact on Consumers’ Attitudes Towards Brands An attitude can be considered to be either positive or negative, depending on the outcome of their learning and evaluating process. The evaluation of consumer attitudes towards brands has quickly become a major part in conducting marketing research. The Page 2
development of positive attitudes towards brands can lead to not only the sustaining of competitive advantage, but in the bettering of the financial health of a company. Branding has been found to be a key in formation of positive attitudes towards products, especially those involving low-levels of consumer involvement. However it has been noted that there are factors that might negate the effects of the formation of positive attitudes. One being that the effects of positive attitudes can dissipate should the consumer not purchase the product within a certain timeframe. Another factor that might negate the effects of positive attitudes might be an overtly high pricing policy, which might have a contrary effect to the consumer’s positive attitudes towards the brand and result in a non sale. In considering attitudes towards brands, one must ponder whether these attitudes all remain at a conscious level, or whether branding can instigate attitudes at a sub-conscious level. Sigmund Freud’s theory that individuals are rarely aware of how their own psychology shapes their visual behavioral patterns which suggests that at an unconscious level, consumer might have beliefs that shape their attitudes towards products. By acknowledging Freud’s theories, one can conclude that branding can be used to target sub-conscious desires that rest at a primal level.
2.4 Positioning Various authors have given different definition of Positioning. Some are:Page 2
Beckman, Kurtz, Boonee “Product positioning refers to the consumer’s perception of a product’s attribute, use, quality & advantages & disadvantages in relation to competing brands.” Berkowitz, Kerlin, Rudelius “Product positioning refers to the place an offering occupies in the consumer’s mind on important attributes relative to competitive offerings.”
2.4.1 Usefulness of Positioning As competition intensifies & brands proliferate, consumers tend to differentiate between brands in their own way. Positioning is a conscious attempt on the part of the marketer to accentuate this natural tendency & in the process, impart a distinct identity to his own brand to make it stand out among the competitors. The basis on which this differentiation is achieved reflects consumer preferences or attitudes. The marketer, through his diverse & coordinated actions, tries to influence this process. The concept of positioning is also important in various other aspects of the marketing strategy. Once one is clear about the position one wants, the other marketing decisions like product design, packaging, pricing, method of distribution, etc., become clearer. 2.4.2 Brand Positioning
It should be remembered that positioning is more a reflection of a product and that it stifles the rich meaning of the brand without taking into account all its potentialities. Positioning applies to the process of emphasizing the brands distinctive and motivating attributes in the light of competition. It is based on the analysis of response to the following four questions. POSITIONING • Why? • For whom? • When? • Against whom?
2.4.3 Elements of Positioning Evidence has shown that there are four distinct variables that affect the position of a given product. These are:a)
The product itself,
The company behind it,
The Product: - How important the product is or what meaning it has for the consumer & how he relates to it. The fact that a product involves better ingredients or processes is a matter of indifference unless this knowledge offers distinct advantages to the consumer.
The Company: - A product comes from a company & every company has its own history. Generally, the stronger the companies profile the better the image of its products. For instance, consumers may perceive a better the image of a product if it comes from a reputed house like Tata’s.
The Competition: - Product positioning is invariably done in relation to various competitive offerings. In most cases, the consumers have a tendency to judge a product in comparison to the dominant brand, e.g., all photocopiers are compared with Modi Xerox, all PCs with HCL, toothpastes with Colgate & so on. Leading brand enjoys some edge over others. Page 1
4. The Consumer: - It should be reiterated that positioning is essentially based on consumer perception rather than factual evaluation. Hence, it becomes necessary to examine how the consumer views a product. Here, it becomes necessary to examine how the consumer views a product. Here, the consumer’s self-perception comes into play along with his cognitive & connotative factors.
CHAPTER- 3 METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction In order to understand the methodology used to compile this Project, this chapter is included in order to clarify how an effective methodological philosophy can to contribute the successful production of a un-bias and critically Project, as well as comprehend the process underwent to reach the pertinent conclusion outlined in chapter 5. This chapter also serves the purpose of justifying and authenticating the research procedures employed in order meet the set objectives and answers the main research question of this Project.
3.2 Research Approach 3.2.1 Secondary Data • Articles in Newspapers, Magazines and Internet • Study Reports from Internet • Desk Research under the guidance of my guide
Primary Data Consumer Survey on the effect of brands on their buying behaviour
Data Collection Tools • Questionnaire Survey • Books • Internet
CHAPTER- 4 FINDINGS & ANALYSIS
CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS & ANALYSIS
4.1 Secondary Research Findings Consumer Behavior is the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. Consumers take many forms, ranging from an eight-year-old child begging her mother for Pokemon shoes to an executive in a large corporation deciding on a multimillion-dollar computer system. The items that are consumed can include anything: Gucci handbags, a massage, democracy, rap music, or hoopster rebel Dennis Rodman. Needs and desires to be satisfied range from hunger and thirst to love, status, or even spiritual fulfillment. Consumer behavior is the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires.
A consumer may purchase, use, and / or dispose of am product, but these functions may be performed by different people. In addition, consumers may be thought of as role players who need different products to help them play their various parts.
Fashion terminology is often used by consumers in overlapping ways. A style of apparel is defined by distinctive attributes that distinguish it from others in its category, such as different types of skirts; a fashion is a style that has been accepted by many people; high fashion consists of new, expensive styles offered by upper-end designer. A trend is a general direction that may lead to a fashion. Merchandise classifications include designer, bridge, better, moderate, and budget prices.
• Fashions tend to follow cycles. The two extremes of fashion adoption known as collective selection. Perspectives on motivations for adopting new styles include psychological, economic, and sociological models of fashion.
• Marketing activities exert an enormous impact on individuals. Consumer behavior is relevant to our understanding of the dynamics of popular culture.
• The Internet is transforming the way consumers interact with companies and with each other. Online commerce allows us to locate obscure product from around the world, and consumption communities provide forums for people to share opinions and product recommendations. The benefits are accompanied by potential problems, including the loss of privacy.
The field of consumer behavior is interdisciplinary; it is composed of researchers from many different fields who share an interest in how people interact with the marketplace. These disciples can be categorized Page 1
by the degree to which their focus is micro (the individual consumer) versus macro (the consumer as a member of a group or of the larger society).
There are many perspectives on consumer behavior, but research orientations can roughly be divided into two approaches. The positivist perspective emphasizes the objectivity of science and the consumer as a rational decision maker. The interpretive perspective, in contrast, stresses the subjective meaning of the consumer’s individual experience and the idea that any behavior is subject to multiple interpretations rather than to one single explanation.
4.1.1 Current Customer Trends Male Shopping Habits • Men are creatures of habit and find comfort in what is familiar to them – less risk in purchases. • Research shows that nearly 75 per cent of male shoppers buy clothing at the exact same stores they went to three years back. • Men are not as adventurous in fashion as women and changes to wardrobe are far less common. • Male shoppers demand much more customer service. • Men tend to stay with a brand or a style and stick with it for several years – less likely to change. • Male consumer loyalty makes it harder for new businesses or brands to attract new customers. • Retail stores must create some kind of compelling reason for the male shopper to switch. • Male oriented activities like putting greens in the sports department, computer games, celebrity endorsements, all help men try a new store.
Marketer’s and brand retailer’s need to capitalize on this consumer trend. It’s no longer just the metrosexual or uber-sexual man. It’s the future consumer and the buyer. In the past men were ignored as mere buyers for their female counterparts. But as the market evolves they will be the biggest buyers for themselves. Brands need to focus on this consumer as he will be the next big thing – The Man. Teenage Power • Teenage consumers influence the purchase patterns of many different age groups. • They are the offspring of the baby boomers and represent over 14 per cent of the total population. • Typical teenager’s room now includes a TV, a stereo, a DVD player, a computer and perhaps even a microwave oven. • Each room is a highly personalized environment that can be custom tailored and personalized as a centre for entertainment. • 42 per cent of all Indian teenagers, 18 and over, have their own credit card and increasing – another 14 per cent to have access to the credit cards. Fashion brands need to pay more attention to this consumer segment as they are the future of the marketplace. Increased income levels and exposure to television makes them the consumer with the buying power, especially with the phenomenal growth in the BPO sector where dress codes are essential and thus increasing the opportunities for brands to market themselves and sell to this segment. Page 1
Buying Experiences • Popularity of reality television speaks volumes about the heart beat of the consumer. • Insecurity and a shyness and a new perspective about the outside world cause people to enjoy vicarious adventures enacted by ordinary souls. • Family values become more important. • Historical movies that present plot lines about overcoming danger and winning against greater odds connect us to our past. • Women are being drawn to plots with warm and fuzzy endings – men to macho excitement. • People are watching more newscasts and making a bigger effort to understand current events. • Marketers and businesses alike need to focus on these consumer trends and make a detailed outline as to how they need to innovate to cater to the masses and not just a niche crowd as that’s where the major business lies and the brand image gets identity in the marketplace. • Innovation, promotion and marketing a brand is essential, but only after one understands the psychology of the marketplace and develops products that match it. Page 3
4.1.2 Top Brands In India PROVOGUE
The Company was incorporated on November 11, 1997 as Acme Clothing Private Limited. Provogue stands for fashion and not pure apparel; this in itself makes it the leader instantly. Its designs are cutting edge and radical, which epitomizes its mantra “Redefining Fashion”. The Company launched the fashion brand ‘Provogue’ in March 1998 and within a short span of seven (7) years; it has established a strong brand identity in the minds of the urban consumer. The Company’s philosophy of ‘creating trends’ in fashion, an aggressive marketing strategy, coupled with high profile promotional events and its distribution strategy of retailing through selective stores and malls has resulted in Provogue being now positioned as a leading fashion brand in India.
The Company acquired from Acme Global the entire business of export of textile; textile machinery and textile related chemicals and operates these businesses as its division under the name Acme Global.
• Louis Philippe Louis Philippe's range of superbly crafted garments makes an exclusive fashion statement that is accepted as a status symbol, recognized by its distinctive icon — 'The Upper Crest'.
• Van Heusen Page 1
Van Heusen has redefined corporate attire through continuous product innovation and exclusive collections.
• Allen Solly Allen Solly popularized the Friday dressing concept in India. It has won the IFA Images 2001 'Best Brand Award' in the readymade menswear apparel category.
• Peter England
This mid-segment shirt has effectively penetrated the mini metros. It has won several awards, including 'Shirt of the Year 2000' and 'India's most admired menswear brands 2001'.
LEVI’S FASHION BRAND
In the list of top market players in the fashion industry, the most shining name is Levis fashion brand. Levi Strauss & Co. (LS&CO) was named after its founder Levi Strauss in 1853. Since then the journey of its success has been going on. It has cast its spell in more than 110 countries. Levis as leading jeans brand has entered into the international parlance and flooding the market with its designer apparels. Levis products are marketed under various brand names like Levis, Dockers and Levi Strauss Signature.
ITC’S LIFESTYLE RETAILING Page 1
ITC’s Lifestyle Retailing Business Division has established a nationwide retailing presence through its Wills Lifestyle chain of exclusive specialty stores. Wills Lifestyle, the fashion destination, offers a tempting choice of Wills Classic work wear, Wills Sport relaxed wear, Wills Clublife evening wear, fashion accessories and Essenza Di Wills – an exclusive range of fine fragrances and bath & body care products for men and women. Wills Lifestyle has also introduced Wills Signature – designer wear designed by the leading designers of the country.
UNITED COLORS OF BENETTON
The United Colors of Benetton (UCB) is changing hues in India. Flush with plans of capturing 80,000 sq ft of retail space across the country before the year ends, coupled with a stringent fabrication and merchandising exercise, United Colors of Benetton is aiming to shore up volume and value sales, while also presenting a larger-than-life facet of its retail look.
4.2 Primary Research Findings Which of the following fashion brands are you aware of?
Which of the following brands of Denim are you aware of?
How often do you change your readymade garments?
How often do you purchase clothes?
Factors you consider while purchasing a readymade garments RANK THEM ACCORDING YOUR PRIORITY:
Listed below are statements about shopping behavior for clothes and clothing fashions. Please check one box for each statement to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement.
agree Nor Disagree
I buy clothes I like,
regardless of current fashion. I buy new fashion looks only when they are well accepted. I am not as concerned about fashion as I am about modest prices and wearability.
I prefer to buy well-
known designer labels rather than take a chance on something new. I am confident that I have good taste in clothing.
Who influence you to purchase the brand?
In which media you have seen the advertisement of these brands?
Which of the following would affect you choice of readymade garments?
When you buy a readymade garment during a promotional campaign, will you by the product after the campaign?
Which media do you prefer more for fashion ads (in order of your preference)?
If TV, is it because
If magazine, is it because of
If Newspaper / pamphlets, if it because of
CHAPTER- 5 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusions Readymade garment is really becoming big business. The domestic market too presents immense opportunities with consumer spending on the rise and organized retailing growing. But should a garment player go global or sell at home? Some players such as Raymond and Zodiac Clothing have chosen to be aggressive in both markets. Even as they plan to improve their retail presence over the next three years, both are expanding their manufacturing facilities in Bangalore to cater to the expected rise in international demand. Interestingly, major export players such as Ambattur Clothing (Color Plus) and Acme Clothing (Provogue) have, in the past, placed their bet on the domestic market. These companies quickly managed to give bigger players a run for their money. But, as Color Plus discovered, further growth could come only from a wider distribution network, which needs deep pockets. Raymond stepped in and acquired the brand. Operating in the domestic market poses an entirely different set of challenges from that of the export market. It requires more than manufacturing expertise and a heightened fashion-consciousness.
Established names, however, do not have it easy either. The entry of international brands such as Tommy Hilfiger into the Indian market is likely to be followed by more players. Competition is likely to hot up and keep domestic players on their toes. The retail landscape is changing, and the traditional distribution strategy of apparel players is in for an overhaul. Figuring out which price point to operate in is yet another challenge for an apparel maker. Challenging, but interesting, times are ahead for the readymade garment industry. Apparel retailers, with little retail expertise, had to build their own network, at considerable expense. The rapid growth in recent years of various retail formats, such as departmental stores and malls, has given a fillip to the industry. A boost to the industry would come from allowing foreign direct investment in retailing, which would increase space considerably and also bring international practices to India. This may also encourage newer entrants, once the distribution costs decline. Private labels tend to do well during recessions. Retailers enjoy better margins on their own labels, and are also able to price them lower. Players such as Madura Garments, which have a presence in the segment through Allen Solly, believe that once women try out private labels and get more accustomed to Western wear, they are likely to upgrade to a more expensive brand. But players may still find it tough to cater to this market. They would have to move towards a low-margin, volume-driven business. This would also need a far larger distribution network than what exists today.
Few retail formats in India operate on a truly large scale. Giants such as Wal-Mart and Carrefour, which have the ability to drive volumes, are what the industry would need.
1. Rural market. Knowing the huge size of rural population of India it is natural that the rural market is attractive to marketers. Company should study purchasing power, life styles, buying habits, optimal usage level. Brooke Bond for instance could capture the crux of the challenge when they started marketing Re 1 tea packets. Page 1
2. Understanding role of children. Marketers should study the role of children in buying decision – as influencers and decision makers. However, the challenge remain how does one communicate with children? Advertising recalls being more in the case of children-one way is clear but with every one trying to apply the same technique, marketers will be gradually disillusioned with the method. Possible ways of circumventing this problem may be to market the product through schools or to use the imitative tendencies of children by influencing their peers.
3. Distribution. Distribution cost are an increasing component of marketing cost marketers will have to find ways through which one can achieve efficient as well as economic distribution. One solution is joint distribution or by adopting direct marketing.
Packaging. With self-shopping gaining grounds and shelf space getting limited, packaging becomes an important factor that marketers have to be concern about. Companies should identify the requirements and pack commodities according to demand.
Customer service challenge. In an increasingly competitive market, retention of a customer is possible only through better service. Marketers will require devoting to more efforts to understand the customer view of quality and convenience. Marketers should do regular research to find this fact. Page 3
Adaptation to newer environment. As government withdraw entry barriers and relax restriction on merger or takeover many companies should install superior technology and resort to merger – acquisition route to make their unit more efficient.
Creativity and innovation in overall marketing programmes. Marketers have to develop organizational structure style and functioning, which enable them to act fast and bring in innovations in their marketing programmes.
Kevin Lane Keller (2004), Strategic Brand Management, 2nd edition, Pearson Education, New Delhi
Consumer Behavior, 6th Edition, by Lean G.Sehiffman and Leslic lazan Kanuk.
Consumer Behavior, 6th Edition, by Hawkins, Best ad Coney.
Brand Equity (Economic Times)
• www.levis.com • www.peterengland.com •
ANNEXURE Page 3
BRANDING & READYMADE GARMENTS Questionnaire (Tick whichever applicable) CONTACT INFORMATION: Name: Mr. Ms. ________________________________________ Address: _________________________________________________ City: ____________________________________________________ Phone :( O) _________________________ (R) __________________
OTHER INFORMATION: Age: Marital status: Single
Married Page 3
Occupation: (tick one) Businessman Executive Academics
House-Wife Self-employed Student Others ________________________ (Please Specify)
Monthly Household Income: 20000
1. Which of the following fashion brands are you aware of? Levi’s
2. Which of the following brands of Denim are you aware of? Lee
Monte Carlo Lites Lee Cooper
Others (please specify)
3. How often do you change your readymade garments? Frequently
4. How often do you purchase clothes? Once a week
Once in a month
Once in 3 months
Once in 6 months
5. Factors you consider while purchasing a readymade garments? RANK THEM ACCORDING YOUR PRIORITY: Cloth type
6. Listed below are statements about shopping behavior for clothes and clothing fashions. Please check one box for each statement to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement. Agree
Neithe r Agree
Nor Disagr ee I buy clothes I like, regardless of current fashion. I buy new fashion looks only when they are well accepted. I am not as concerned about fashion as I am about modest prices and wearability. I prefer to buy well-known designer labels rather than take a chance on something new. I am confident that I have good taste in clothing.
7. Who influence you to purchase the brand? Family
8. In which media you have seen the advertisement of these brands TV
Magazine Page 1
9. Which of the following would affect you choice of readymade garments? No effective at all
Affecting the most
Cloth Type Price Promotional campaigns
10.When you buy a readymade garment during a promotional campaign, will you by the product after the campaign? Yes
I will most likely written over to my previous brand
I will switch over to previous brand
11.Which media do you prefer more for fashion ads (in order of your preference)? Page 1
Newspaper / pamphlets
Radio Hoardings / bill boards
Any other (specify)
12.If TV, is it because It is an audio - visual medium
13.If magazine, is it because of It is a good source of latest trends
Longevity of message
Any other (specify)
14.If Newspaper / pamphlets, if it because of Inexpensive source of Information
Available in many languages
Any other (specify)
15.If Radio, Is it because Audio medium
Medium for travellers and car riders
Any other (specify)
16.If Hoardings, is it because Page 3
It is an attention gaining medium
Conveys direct message
Colorful and attractive
Any other (specify)