GREEK SCULPTURE- THE ARCHAIC PERIOD [1978]- by JOHN BOARDMAN.pdf

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JOHN BOARDMAN

481 PLATES

GREEK SCULPTURE THE ARCHAIC PERIOD

THE

WORLD OF ART

The World of Art

is

a series that ranges

the entire field of art in

all its

aspects.

through aim is

Its

books on the main periods, cultures, and artists, from the ancient world to the most current movements. Each volume is v^ritten by an acknowledged authority and contains a large number of color and black and white illustrations which form an to present

essential

complement

to the text.

The books

in this series at

present available from Oxford

University Press,

New York, are

listed inside

the back cover.

GREEK SCULPTURE The Archaic Period

Calf-bearer from the Acropolis, Athens. See 112

GREEK SCULPTURE The Archaic Period a

handbook

JOHN BOARDMAN

NEW YORK AND TORONTO OXFORD UNIVERSITY 1978

PRESS

© 1978 Thames and Hudson Ltd, London All rights reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Boardman, John, 1927Greek sculpture. (World of art) Bibliography:

p.

Includes index. I.

Sculpture, Greek.

I.

Title.

ND90.B62 73 3 '.3 ISBN 0-19-520046-2 ISBN 0-520047-0 pbk.

II.

Series

77-25202

Printed in Great Britain by Jarrold and Sons Ltd,

Norwich

CONTENTS

1'

INTRODUCTION

7

2

THE DARK AGES AND GEOMETRIC PERIOD

9

3

THE ORIENTALIZING STYLES

1

Eastern styles in Crete and Greece;

ii

The Daedalic

style;

Other early Archaic statuary

4

MARBLE AND THE MONUMENTAL

i8

TO ABOUT 570 BC

The

first

Artists

5

marble sculpture; Kouroi; Korai; Perirrhanteria;

and authors

Figures 1-80

28

THE MATURING ARCHAIC STYLES

63

TO ABOUT 530 BC Sources; Kouroi and realism; Korai; East Greek sculpture

and

sculptors; Attic sculpture

The

Rampm

and sculptors (Phaidimos,

Master, Aristion of Paros); Other areas;

Proportions and techniques

6

THE LATER ARCHAIC STYLES to

about 480 bc

82

Attic sculpture and sculptors (Endoios, Antenor); East

Greek sculpture and

Figures 81-186

sculptors;

Other

areas

90

ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE Placing and character;

151

The beginnings, Corfu; Athens;

Central and south Greece; Treasuries; East Greece

8

RELIEFS Grave

reliefs;

162

Votive and other

reliefs

9

ANIMALS AND MONSTERS

167

10

CONCLUSION

169

Figures 187-271

17

Abbreviations

241

Notes and Bibliographies

242

Index of Illustrations

248

Acknowledgments

249

Index of Artists

250

General Index

250

Chapter One

INTRODUCTION

'A

critical history

of Greek

art

would show how late the Greeks commenced to war a new world opens at once, and from that

practise the arts. After the Persian

strides. But everything that was produced before few of those works are still extant - was, if we judge of it without prejudice, altogether barbarous.' When the great historian Niebuhr wrote this, at the beginning of the last century, there were few existing examples of Archaic Greek art from the period before the Persian war, and most were not generally recognized for what they were. It is an art which has been learnt by patient scholarly recognition of the vases and bronzes exported to Italy in antiquity, and for its sculpture mainly from the finds in excavations of the last hundred years. Connoisseurship of style and the evidence of ancient authors combine to map clearly the development of Classical sculpture. For the earlier period, when regional independence in the arts was more marked, it is not surprising that it has proved hard to achieve a scholarly consensus about the development of styles, their origins and dates. This was a period in which the seeds of Classical art were sown, but the growth was not as inexorable or evenpaced as the summary art histories might lead us to believe. There could have been no conscious striving towards realism until realism was understood as a possible and desirable goal. And there were many false starts or periods of preoccupation with sterile styles and techniques. The art historian seeks the rationale which will lead to a better understanding of why Greek art took the course it did. The archaeologist puzzles evidence of date, traces the sources and routes of foreign inspiration. The iconographer probes the convention of a narrative style which is to serve western art for centuries. This is hardly the

time they advanced with great

the Persian

war -

a

subject for the specialist

must

who

cannot see

how

interdependent these approaches

be.

book attempts to present the evidence fairly, but also to propose a by which the development may be the better understood. If it did not, the undertaking would have proved as boring for the author as the reader. Much is uncontroversial, but in places the manner of presentation is novel. The narrative concentrates on the history of style by period and region, as the material dictates, and it attempts to be as comprehensive as space allows rather than so selective as to exclude even mention of the majority of types, places and names relevant to the subject. As in the companion handbooks to Athenian This

pattern

little

black figure and Archaic red figure vases, the illustrations are small but numerous, both aides-memoires to the familiar and glimpses of the uncommon. Drawings have been used where photographs would be obscure or where composition is more important than nuances of style, and several fine new drawings have been made by Marion Cox to offer a fuller view of important complexes of narrative relief than most handbooks, even weighty ones, allow. Captions are fuller too, relieving the text of much discussion of subject matter and technical data. The notes serve to demonstrate sources of further information about all illustrated works (designated by italicized numbers in square brackets), and to list more detailed studies. Dates, of course, are all bc. Where sanctuary sites are named in captions the major deity may be assumed as the object of a dedication unless otherwise stated; and the major museum where a town is named. 'The Acropolis' is the Athenian. The material is always marble unless otherwise indicated and measurements are in metres. I hope that any apparently laconic treatment will be excused: it is in the interests of providing as much illustrative material as possible withm the format of the series. It is only the sculpture of the Greek homeland, islands and the eastern seaboard on the Aegean, 'east Greece', that is studied here. The Greek colonies in South Italy and Sicily, and to a lesser extent in Africa and on the shores of the Black Sea, have also something to contribute to the story, but their studios are derivative and have no important reciprocal effect on homeland styles. Consideration of these must be reserved for inclusion in a proposed sequel to this handbook.

Chapter

Two

THE DARK AGES AND GEOMETRIC PERIOD

The Greek Bronze Age

and no tradition to foster or revive through the Dark Ages that followed. A few works of Mycenaean Greece, such as the relief on the Lion Gate at Mycenae, stood to be admired, but were not copied. In a period when the technically more demanding arts wTre forgotten, together with the palace patronage which had encouraged them, the only craft traditions to survive were those dependent on the simplest techniques. At this level we can detect cultural and artistic continuity, and although this held little promise for the future it is w^orth observing. In the later Bronze Age it had been a common practice, in Greece and Crete, to fashion figurines of clay, sometimes of considerable size, on the potters' wheel. A cylinder served as the body for a standing figure or an animal, and to it were added, free-hand, head and limbs, all being painted and fired as any painted vase, with the same pigments, the same patterns. Indeed, some of these figures were vases. The tradition in standing figures can be followed readily enough in Crete [i 2], and the wheel-made animals are to be found in many parts of the Greek world, and in Cyprus, serving as votive offerings or as grave furniture. Illustrated are two of the more elaborate examples which can be placed not only from the circumstances of their finding but also from their decoration, which was applied by the vase painter and matches that on left

no heritage

civilization finally collapsed in the twelfth century

in stone sculpture for later centuries,

,

One is from tenth-century Athens, a stag [3], the other, a little from Euboea [4]. The latter is what a later Greek would call a centaur, and there are other man-animal monsters, sphinxes or bull-men. The style is pretentious, but most minor sculpture of the Greek Dark Ages is trivial and it decorated vases.

later,

required

a

new

impetus, of w^ealth or foreign example, to engender

for a greater range of types, greater sophistication.

The

results are

a

demand

not startling

but they prove decisive for the later history of Greek sculpture.

With

the advent of the full

Geometric period, and

especially in the eighth

century, the true renaissance of the arts in Greece begins.

The population was for new resources,

growing rapidly and towns were already looking overseas

new

land for their citizens, in the 'coloniaf areas of Italy and Sicily; through

trade and travel the near east

was quickening the

appetites

and

skills

craftsmen. In Greece itself several major sanctuaries were established, local (as Athens,

Samos), some of national importance

(as

of Greek some of

Olympia, Delphi,

Dodona), which provided a market for votives, a focus for the artists' expertise. The contribution of the east was a special one, as we shall see. Otherwise, sculptural works are small, though plentiful, executed in clay or bronze. The clay is hand-fashioned and fired solid, with far less use now of the potters' wheel. The bronze too is cast solid, in a clay mantle around the modelled wax original which is melted out in the firing. Each work, then, is unique and there can be no re-use of moulds. Many of the figurines or heads, both in clay and bronze, were destined for attachment to vessels, supporting the ring handles of cauldrons [5] which were popular and expensive offerings, or decorating the rims of open vases. The rather soft, plastic forms encouraged by the technique are soon controlled to present alert 'Geometric' features on which more and more detail is admitted, in either the casting or the later chasing of the bronze figures, and through the painting of the clay ones [6]. Other stylistic features are the elongation of necks and limbs and the geometricizing of parts of the body in a manner easily paralleled by the contemporary figures painted on vases. The painter offers strong broad shoulders to make a triangular torso, long strong thighs and tight buttocks, treating each part in its most characteristic 'frontal' view. The coroplast or bronze worker, with an extra dimension, observes the same formula and conceives his figures in parts - the torso may be broad from the front but waferthin from the side, the legs well muscled from the side, spindly from the front. We know the figures principally from the offerings found at the sanctuaries I have named. The free-standing figures may represent deities- the warrior Zeus at Olympia; or animals — memorials or substitutes for sacrifice (often bulls) and thank-offerings for success (the horse was an important status symbol); or the worshipper himself, as warrior [7] or charioteer. The quadrupeds, horses and the occasional stag [S, 9], as well as birds, beetles, hares, are often set on rectangular (or, rarely, round) open-work plaques, which may be decorated in intaglio beneath. It looks very much as though these small offerings were to be suspended in the sanctuary. Like the men, the animals resemble those drawn on vases, with the flat sweep of the horse's strong neck emphasized and the muzzle sometimes stylized into a trumpet form. There are enough of these bronze horses for regional styles to be detected, in the Peloponnese and central Greece. By the end of the period an inscription may name the donor, recipient and circumstances of the gift [10], if a free-standing figure is involved. By this time too we find more ambitious compositions, either in the pose of a single figure, a bowman or helmet-maker [11], or in groups [j2, ij], where the subject is heroic, and we are reminded by them that Greek interest in narrative was beginning to be expressed by Geometric artists other than Homer. The components of these figures and groups obey the same formulae as the simpler figurines, but the freedom in their use is quite new. We might well think that this is an indication of a new and expressive departure in Geometric art which will be the key to dramatic new developments in the seventh century. And we would be wrong. 10

1

Chapter Three

THE ORIENTALIZING STYLES

Eastern styles

in

Crete and Greece

The

earliest surviving stone sculpture in Iron Age Greece is from Crete: a fragmentary head [14], and a small relief from a frieze showing a goddess in a shrine helped by bowmen against a chariot [13]. They cannot be dated from their context of discovery but stylistically they belong to a series of objects gold jewellery, bronze armour and statuary - which re-introduce to the Greek

world long-forgotten techniques, apparently from the general area of Syria and the neo-Hittite kingdoms. Finds in tombs indicate that the style was centred on Knossos and flourished from the end of the ninth century, but hardly later than the end of the eighth. Probably the latest examples are the three bronze cult figures found in a small temple of Apollo at Dreros [16], which was built in the second half of the eighth century. These were made of sheets of hammered bronze fastened on to a wooden core, with traced decoration on the dress. Very like the 'Apollo' is a small cast bronze found recently at Afrati in an eighthcentury context [17], which proves that the early date for the Dreros figures, suspected on other grounds though they are still often put in the mid-seventh century, is correct. In Knossos at least the explanation for this unusual series of objects seems likely to be an immigrant group or family who plied their craft for a century or more, and practised techniques novel for Geometric Greece but still not learned from them by their Greek neighbours, since their more sophisticated techniques disappear with them (fancy goldsmithing and the working of hard stone). The stone and bronze statuary mentioned, if not theirs, was clearly inspired by their work, and at a lower level we may notice that some of the new, curvilinear, non-Geometric patterns they used were copied by Knossian vase painters in a style we know as Protogeometric B (late ninth century). This represents the first major penetration of Greek lands by oriental art and artists, and it is interesting to note that, despite the quality and variety of the works produced, it had no following, although it may well have established a preference for a plastic style which was to be more enthusiastically adopted

from

the east in Crete and elsewhere in the seventh century

- the

'Daedalic'.

Characteristics of the eighth-century figures are the long oval heads,

domed

with long hook-locks for the men, pill-box hats for the women (a type of headgear reserved in Greece for priestesses or representations of deities and skulls

1

called a polos), rather formless bodies,

symmetrically over the shoulders, open

and for the at

the front

(it

women

the cloak

worn

was fastened by two pins

and a chain worn across the chest, as we see in later views of it). Another immigrant studio in Crete, which may not have arrived so early as that already discussed, is best known from the bronze shields hammered and traced with concentric friezes of figured scenes and with animal-head bosses in the round, found in the Idaean Cave, at other Cretan sites and at a few Greek mainland ones. The style of the figures is more distinctly oriental, but it seems likely that the workshop was still open to near the middle of the seventh century and its later work betrays more Greek taste in composition, style and subject

The only

it offers, apart from the shield bosses, is the from the Cave {18], very oriental in appearance although the concept seems Greek. This must be one of the latest products of the

matter.

sculptural interest

strange bronze head vase

studio.

Athens and Attica other immigrant goldsmiths worked jewellery related were no sculptural side-effects, unless they are to be detected in the use of a new material, now introduced again to Greece, ivory. Minor worked ivories from the east had arrived earlier, but in an Athenian grave of about 730 is a group of ivory girls, in pose and nakedness copying the eastern Astarte figures, yet without their opulent physique [19]. Instead they are pared down to a truly Geometric sleekness, and their polos-hats carry a Greek maeander. Here, then, is a Greek artist who has learned a new technique with a new material, and practises it with distinction. The only other orientalizing works worth noting in this context are bronze attachments to cauldrons - a function of many of the purely Geometric bronzes. Vessels imported from the east from the later eighth century on carried either cast attachments in the form of what the Greeks would later have called sirens, or lion (and perhaps griffin) heads in hollow hammered bronze. Examples are known with both cast and hammered attachments (in Olympia [20] and Cyprus), and the source may be Syria or beyond. What is of interest here is the stylistic change in the Greek copies of these works. The siren heads exchange their plump cheeks for Geometric angularity [21], the griffins, soon cast rather than beaten, acquire sinuous and graceful beaks, to become impressive decorative attachments [22]. The sirens appear mainly in central and south Greece, the griffins also in east Greece (especially Samos). The translation of these human and animal forms is an important commentary on Greek attitudes to minor sculpture as decoration, but we are still far from 'real' sculpture, or anything even nearly monumental. In

to the Cretan, but there

12

The Daedalic

A

style

description of the Auxerre goddess [28]

is

our best introduction to the

- we shall attempt to meet Daedalus himself later, at the end of the next chapter. The figure is a limestone statuette of a woman dressed in what DaedaHc

style

we have

already recognized as a Cretan manner, with cloak covering both

The breasts are unusually well shaped over the high waist and the formless skirt covered with incised patterns defining areas of colour [128]. The hand carried across the breast is probably in a shoulders and a broad, probably metallic, belt.

gesture of adoration, but fertility

goddess.

may

also derive

from

the eastern breast-holding

The other long-fmgered hand is pressed

to her side, the feet are

lumpy. The face is triangular, rounding in the chin, rather flat-topped, the forehead defined by a straight row of curls. The hair is dressed in vertical locks with knob terminals, but also with horizontally ranged crimps. There w^as a lot of colour, including a scale or feather pattern on the breast. The dress, shape of head and hair typify the Daedalic style no less than the strict frontality, and a frontal head alone is enough to identify it, either on its own or applied, for instance, to a sphinx or a male figure. The hair is more commonly dressed only with horizontal waves. It is often described as a wig (the Etagenperiicke) and, although it certainly owes something to eastern and ultimately Egyptian representations of wigs or head-dresses, in Greece the convention is used to indicate long, carefully combed hair. The Daedalic style is expressed in stone, clay, ivory and jewellery, and may be taken to have flourished from the second quarter of the seventh century to its end. big,

The clues to its origins lie in its favourite figure — the frontal woman, in the medium in which it is most often expressed — clay relief, and, perhaps in the area where it is best represented - Crete. The frontal goddess, naked and with hands pressed to breasts and loins,

is

familiar in Syria in dozens of

plaques representing Astarte. In Corinth such a plaque

seventh century and

purely eastern type

at

the

mould-made

was imported

[23]

clay

in the

same site we find

[24]; cf. [51].

a locally made mould for a figure of The introduction of the mould to Greece,

particularly in association with figures related to the Daedalic,

is important. It enabled the mass-production of such figures, which in turn led to a certain stereotyping of the form and must have contributed to its long life. The naked

whom we have met already in ivory in Athens [ip], is also copied in Cretan Daedalic plaques [26]; cf. [27], but soon clothed. The female nude is not yet a proper subject for Greek art. goddess,

Crete's probable role in the its

development of the

style

is

further suggested

superficial similarity to the eighth-century orientalizing

works

by

in the island

[16, the women], which are often erroneously classed as Daedalic, and by some Cretan clay heads of aggressively triangular outline, which are not mould-made but indicate a preference for this type; compare [25, 44]. Finally, it is a characteristic of Cretan seventh-century figures that while there are several of

13

women

or goddesses wholly naked,

all

the

men

are clothed, rarely exposing

is virtually the reverse of probably another indication of the strong influence in Crete of the east, where the naked goddess was commonplace but male nudity abhorrent; and it also echoes the Minoan practice of semi-nudity for women, covered loins for men. It may be, then, that the Daedalic style and its propagation owe much to the mould technique for clay reliefs (there are abortive attempts with two-piece moulds), but it is soon translated into stone. The Auxerre statuette [28] may well be Cretan and there are several other figures from the island, standing, seated and in high relief. Illustrated are two fragmentary seated figures (the earliest in stone from Greece) from Astritsi [2g] and Gortyn [30], a prolific site. Between them they demonstrate the horizontally waved hair and elaborate painted decoration on the skirt. Each whole figure has been made in two pieces. From Gortyn too comes the relief slab [ji] with another triad like the Dreros bronzes, but the girls are naked, in eastern fashion, and their hair more eastern, as [28], springing from high behind the temples. This is from an architectural setting, and so is a later assemblage from Prinias including seated figures, reliefs and relief dado slabs [52]. Finally, there is part of another possibly seated figure from

their genitals (in the least 'orientalizing' works). This

the practice in the rest of Greece.

Eleutherna

[jj].

Of these

It is

[2g, jo, jj] are lifesize

-

all

are limestone.

nor even Dorian Greece (the Peloponnese, Melos, Thera, Rhodes) although this has often been alleged, and the style is certainly best represented in this area. There is little in stone, however, outside the island. Best known are the reliefs from Mycenae, in the canonic style [33 J: odder, in style and function, a relief from Boeotia [36], but from the Ptoon comes a Daedalic woman whose base carries part of what may be our first sculptor's signature (. .]otos). In clay the style is better represented, especially in the Peloponnese, but the mould is not used only for plaques. In Crete, at Gortyn, we have fine examples of miniature clay sculpture in the round, as with the Athena [34] whose bell skirt follows the older Cretan tradition of wheel-made figurines, which continues, for figures mainly like this, in various parts of Greece through the seventh century. Daedalic and mouldmade too arc the heads of figures, often sphinxes, on clay relief vases (pithoi) mainly from Crete, and the style is represented also in jewellery, in Crete, Rhodes and Melos. In other materials and at greater scale we see it in a hollow cast head from Olympia [37], where a fine incised pattern for the hair answers the bolder rendering in stone. By now too Greek studios for ivories can work in this fully hellenized orientalizing style and the sphinx from Perachora is purely Daedalic [38], while the strange high-relief group of strippers in New York [3g] may be an attempt at a myth scene. It is time to consider dates. Two stumpy figures with Daedahc heads are the earliest examples in stone [40] which are datable, before the middle of the seventh century, from their context with pottery in a grave on Thera. In clay Crete

is

not the only source for the

.

14

style,

the

mould-made heads apphed

to (Proto-) Corinthian oil flasks are valuable

because the vases are painted in datable.

The example

shown

[41]

Corinthian vases are of

less

a distinctive is

manner which

of about 650.

Some frontal

is

quite closely

heads painted on

value for close comparison and profile views,

notably on Cretan vases (less closely datable), are usually better developed than the profile views of the primarily frontal Daedalic heads. Other moulded heads on Corinthian vases indicate the style of the end of the century. There must have

been

many regional

by some

scholars,

variations though a good sequence can be observed and has, been rather too elaborately defined. But the trend can be

named and wherever there is a good series of from a single site, like Gortyn. The tendency is from the angular to the more rounded in features, with a growing sensitivity to the volume and depth of the head (undervalued in the early plaques), and a reduction in the emphasis

detected both in the datable pieces types

of certain features - size of eyes, lips, hands. The sequence in the Cretan may be observed here as follows: [2g—28—ji-j2-jj].

The Daedalic was enlisted for small

basically a decorative style,

works

in

the second half of the seventh century.

the stereotyping of the style. In fact figures in the

round or

in

which

is

why

ivory or metal, and rarely achieves

relief,'

but

was

so often

lifesize in stone, in

We have touched upon

it still

it

series

the reasons for

follows the Geometric formula for

new and sometimes

foreign elements of

pattern and detail are added to the conventional rendering of parts, bare or

There is no challenge to nature here, little progress m rendering of anatomy, and the frontal aspect, which often left ears (only shown on later works and perhaps an egyptianizing feature) attached to hair rather than head as [32, 33], hardly encouraged experiment in this direction. It promised only stagnation, and there is no other major genre in Greek art which progressed so slowly in the Archaic period. The east had revitalized most Greek crafts with new techniques, new forms and figures, but it was going to require something more than the east could offer if the plastic arts in Greece were to move forward, or even recapture the vision, flair and freedom of some of the latest Geometric. clothed.

Other early Archaic statuary

The Daedalic

style,

however

defined, hardly accounts for

all

Greek seventh-

century statuary, large or small, not executed in marble. Even in limestone there are figures which, in their bulk, display a fine disregard for the rather

two-

dimensional frontality of the Daedalic - such as the chubby male from Tanagra [42] - although the heads of such figures will probably have roughly resembled the Daedalic in angularity of features

and

style

of hair.

Smaller works display greater variety and differing traditions or sources. They demonstrate the growing command of techniques in bronze and ivory,

and often

a greater

material this

all

freedom

in

composition. Despite the differences in scale and

contributes to the Greek sculptor's emancipation

from

the

15

Daedalic and realization of the monumental, which

we

study in the next

chapter.

Solid cast bronzes remain

now

more informative than

own

terracottas.

More of them

not for attachment to a vessel or furniture. Two main sources well illustrate their range. Even in Crete we can fmd pieces that renounce the Daedalic, but probably because they owe are independent figures,

with

their

bases,

It is hard to say whether the little an easterner or a Cretan [43]. His head resembles the pre-Daedalic, but the free pose reminds us of the latest Geometric bronzes. The little sphinx's snaky locks [44] are almost Minoan, but the one wing carried forward renders in the round an eastern convention more familiar on painted vases in Greece and

more

to rather different eastern traditions.

lyre-player

Crete.

And

cloth, but

is

is

the ram-bearer [43] has the heavy Cretan features and Cretan loinmodelled with a feeling for depth which is foreign to the Daedalic.

These two must be from quite late in the seventh century despite the features of [43] which should probably be explained as non-Daedalic rather than preDaedalic. They have been called Eteocretan, invoking an indigenous nonHellenic style which might owe something to the island's Minoan past. The old blood and language may have survived, but it is less easy to discern the necessary continuity in the arts, and probably wrong to try. In the Peloponnese Olympia remains an important source for bronze votives. The warrior [46] is the seventh-century descendant of the Geometric Zeuses, but with more detailing of features, more volume to limbs and torso and incipient observation of the pattern of flesh and muscle on the body. This is all carried a stage further in the Olympia charioteer [47]. The Boeotian [48] betrays its lateness in details but looks primitive. Wood must have been a common material for early sculpture but it survives only in conditions of extreme damp or dryness. The waterlogged sanctuary of Hera on Samos has yielded a glimpse of riches lost to us elsewhere. In the smaller works we might expect the style and even subjects to reflect the influence of eastern ivory carving, a cognate art. While the goddess [49] is thoroughly Daedahc the group [30] looks more eastern for the rotundity of features, yet it is to Crete again that we turn for details of the dress - the tunic and shawl. In ivory there are distinguished successors to the Athens girls [19], and in some respects even less hellenized. The head from Perachora [31] is almost certainly an import but what of the god with a lion from Delphi [52]? The highly stylized beast is Assyrian, the fluid treatment of the body non-Greek, yet in the features the flabby oriental is being pared to near-Daedalic alertness, and although the scheme for the group is eastern there are no such ivory statuettes in Syria and beyond, and the theme of god and lion might suit Apollo, while the pattern on the base looks Greek or at least Anatolian. There must have been several ivory workshops in seventh-century Greece, perhaps staffed or instructed by easterners

who

could transpose something of their style and knowledge of kingdoms of Phrygia and Lydia,

eastern themes. East Greece, in touch with the

16

must have been well used to this exchange. Ephesus is an important source of such work, continumg into the sixth century. Closely related to the Ephesian is the ivory fitting from a lyre [53], plumply oriental in concept of body, dress and the

supporting monster:

in

the

same

tradition,

then,

as

other

strongly

from Greece. Yet the only similar lyre-fitting known, also from East Greece and of about the same date, takes us into a different world. The youth from Samos [34] owes little enough to eastern forms, yet, for all the angularity of his head, is quite free from the restrictions of the Daedalic. He displays a crisp simplicity which the loving detail devoted to orientalizing ivories of the seventh century

and features, does nothing to obscure. It is not, I hope, only the optimism of a Hellenist which can see in this tiny and decorative work the qualities of form and even monumentality that we can readily admire in the later, larger works of Greek sculpture. We shall see time and again that unity of form in Greek art, despite the rapid development of the Archaic period and later, transcends scale, material and techniques, leaving always something jewel-like in the colossal, something monumental in the minute. hair, hands, belt

17

Chapter Four

MARBLE AND THE MONUMENTAL to about

The

first

marble sculpture

The impetus and

first

570 BC

for technical

and

styHstic

changes in Greek sculpture in the eighth we have seen, from the near east,

half of the seventh century came, as

from lands whose wealth and expertise the Greeks had begun to seek again in the ninth century. For relations with Egypt in these years the evidence is slight, yet this is to be the source of the next major innovation. The pharaoh Psammetichos I (664—610) invited east Greek and Carian mercenaries to serve him against his enemies, and this resulted in concessions to Greeks to settle and then to trade in Egypt. By 638 we hear of a Samian captain, Kolaios, already acquainted with the route south. In Egypt the Greeks saw lifesize statuary, and larger, in hard stone, for standing and seated figures, superficially not unlike their own less ambitious statues and statuettes, with

some

them from the egyptianizing arts of the near would not have required many visits by many craftsmen, being Greeks and imbued with characteristic Greek curiosity and aptitude to learn, for these novel (to them) concepts in statuary and the means of their execution to be introduced to Greece itself. Basic features are size and material. The size appealed to that sense for the monumental which the Iron Age Greeks had so far expressed only in their architecture and pottery. Given that no Greek statuary features already familiar to

east. It

answering these new concepts can be securely dated before this attested interest Egypt, given the existence of the models for them in Egypt as well as other details of technique and appearance yet to be mentioned, and the absence of such models in the east where even major statuary is basically decorative or

in

monumental, it is impossible not to Greek sculpture with influence from Egypt. Hitherto stone sculpture in Greece had been made of the readily accessible limestone {poros) or sandstone which required nothing more complicated than a carpenter's tools and might even betray the woodworker's technique. The harder material, marble, crystalline rather than granular in composition and requiring some new tools and quite different techniques, was no less easy to obtain, with white, grey and bluish varieties accessible to surface quarrying in the islands and many other mainland areas. The islands are the earliest important source, notably the Cyclades. Naxian marble we know from Naxian works and architectural rather than free-standing

associate this

18

new

era in

quarries in the island

-

it

is

coarse grained, sparkling. Parian marble

sugary in texture and potentially translucent. In both islands

we have

is

more

Archaic

work from the quarries [33], blocked out and left unfinished after accidents in working or transport. The Parian, unlike the Naxian, is often referred to with approval by later authors or named in inscriptions. Pentelic marble from near Athens has a tighter, opaque structure and a distinctive rust-coloured age

much before the mid-sixth century, and then sparingly and there are other varieties to be noticed, such as the bluish neighbouring Hymettan. It is important, however, not to be misled by descriptions of crystal-size and translucency. In early days it was probably the marble's characteristics in working rather than its appearance which determined use, since the finished surface was never highly polished and was in fact often painted - even on the flesh parts where we might have expected the quality of the marble to have been best exploited. So our observations about crystal-size relate to working rather than appearance, and these were the criteria by w^iich the sculptor judged and ordered his stone. The fact that analysis of modern sampling from the sources named shows wide varieties of crystal type in the same area is irrelevant. The sculptor knew what to expect of his 'Parian', 'Naxian' or 'Pentelic' and uncharacteristic stone would not have been acceptable, whatever the label. At any rate, the artist would normally have chosen his stone in the quarry at this period and worked much of it there. We have to judge his choice of material by the standards of antiquity, not of the present day, and the fact that he could have got similar material elsewhere does not matter if w^e have good reason to believe that he did not. In Egypt the hard stones w^ere worked mainly by the laborious process of pounding and abrasion: their copper tools were useless and iron almost unknown. But the Greeks were already using iron for knives and chisels, and this enabled them to make more rapid progress in their carving and in the improvement of techniques and tools to suit the harder material. The iron patina, but

is

not used

until the fifth,

point, held vertically or at an obtuse angle to the surface,

removed

quite large

of stone. For the early marble statues this is followed by work with a flat chisel, which was especially important in rendering detail, the finish being achieved by abrasive, probably emery (obtainable on Naxos) in the form of powder or rubbers. Drills worked with a bow, and wedges (of dry wood, then swollen w4th water) were used to split the blocks from the quarry beds, but the drill was also used to render details and help remove chunks or channels of stone by breaking through a line of close-set drilled holes. This must certainly have been the practice from the beginning since only thus could arms be freed from flanks safely, as on [6j]. This use of flat chisel and drill has only recently been flakes

demonstrated on early Greek marble statues (by Mrs Adam), earlier scholars denying their use so soon. The Egyptian role in all this has been challenged by some recent writers. Certainly it can be exaggerated, but we may review briefly other apparent 19

a

from the purely technical and the example of sheer size. The pose for male figures — the kouroi, youths, to give them their familiar title — had been familiar in Greece already. In fact most such stone figures in Egypt stood with the withdrawn leg vertical, not properly balanced. Moreover, they were normally dressed in at least a loin-cloth, while the Greek are naked,, bulfor^ number of island figures wearing only a belt. However, the male (and female) figures now stand with clenched fists, like the Egyptian, and not stiff-fingered, and the men may have in the fist an unworked mass which recalls the short baton held by many Egyptian figures. This could easily have been omitted to leave an agreeable, tighter geometric pattern of the fingers. Seated figures, not necessarily themselves inspired by Egyptian art, although this is not impossible, may also now sit with palms outstretched on their thighs, in the Egyptian links, apart

^^

manner. In our period Egyptian sculptors laid out preliminary sketches for their figures on the smoothed face of the unworked block according to a grid which determined the placing and size of parts of the body, with twenty-one squares or units from eye line to the soles of the feet. For any figure of lifesize or more some such sketch is an absolute necessity and a grid predetermining proportions was an obvious aid. One Greek kouros may have been laid out in a similar grid (drawing, and [6?]), and Diodorus (i, 98) has a story of two mid-sixth-century Samian sculptors, Telekles and Theodoros, making halves of a statue separately by this system (twenty-one units plus one-quarter cubit from eyes to crown: this part being a variable in Egyptian figures, often occupied by a crown or head-dress), and fitting them perfectly. Clearly, the Egyptian practice was known, and could be used, but most other complete Archaic Greek figures appear to obey no such strict scheme, although absolute height was important and proportional changes, tending to the realistic, can be observed (see next chapter). This is hardly surprising, given the Greek genius for learning, adapting and improving foreign techniques. That subtler principles of proportion could and did concern them is clear from the existence of books on the subject written

^

So all

far as

by

we know,

Classical sculptors such as Polykleitos.

the early

commemorative — votive or

monumental funerary.

statues

which have survived were were

We do not know whether any

need for such w^orks, and the claims of the monumental to be executed in stone and rendered into 'orders', again under the probable inspiration of Egyptian practice, could have played an important part in encouraging the new sizes, styles and techniques. Of earlier cult images we know nothing. Descriptions in later authors suggest that they were crude, often wooden and aniconic, deriving their sanctity from legend ('fallen from heaven') or the finery with which they could be decked out: those, for instance, to be clothed in a robe or having one laid on their knees on ceremonial occasions, like Athena at Troy {Iliad vi, 302f.). And it seems that many temples were furnished with these primitive idols well into the Roman cult statues, yet the

temples whose

20

members were soon

for installation in brand-new structures, may we imagine. If any major new works in wood were executed Archaic period we have no reason to believe that they could have

period, so the

have been

less

in the earlier

demand, except

than

been different in appearance from the Daedalic - a style not originally dependent on wood — nor is there any clear evidence for significant influence on seventh-century statuary from any carpentry styles, other than the purely technical. Any early w^ooden statues might, however, have been large. The probable base for the wooden cult statue of the early Heraion on Samos was a stone cylinder with a sinking 0-57 square. The bases for early marble statues are generally shallow blocks with a sinking for the plinth, the marble slab cut with the feet and rounded off close to them, fastened in position with lead. Sphinxes and human figures could also be mounted on columns, Ionic or Doric according to local architectural practice. An exceptional kouros base is boulderwith heads at each corner, signed by Euthykartidas of Naxos [36]. It is no than 600, one of our earliest sculptor's signatures, and important in telling us that the sculptor was also the dedicator, and so a man of substance.

like,

later

21

Kouroi

The

battered torsos and heads of the early stone kouroi leave us unable to

distinguish easily, let alone date closely, the

first

of

this

important

new

series

which is to be the yardstick of sculptural progress through the sixth century, and the first realization of true monumental sculpture in Greek lands. It is clear, however, that the type is established from the beginning — an upright stance, with straight or lightly flexed arms at the sides, fists clenched. One leg is slightly advanced, usually the left. We step off naturally with the left foot so this enhances the impression of energy and movement as well as providing a more secure support for the heavy mass of the solid marble body balanced on two slim ankles. Moreover, the Greeks preferred profile figures to the right with the

and the preliminary sketch on a block for a kouros would hands, after the earliest, are empty. The belt worn by the early island figures is the only dress beyond a hair fillet or necklet, and exceptionally the boots for [70], and the belt is the same type as that worn by the Daedalic women. Bronze warriors wore helmet and belt alone, well into the farther leg advanced, dictate this pose.

The

seventh century

[46].

The kouroi

are not warriors, but this

is

a closer parallel

than remote and irrelevant eastern belt-wrestling practices, which have been

mentioned

m

this

context, and

we

shall shortly

remark

a possible

Cretan

connection.

What are the kouroi? They used to be called

Apollos but none are cult

statues,

or even certainly representations of a deity, although the type can be converted to this use

by

raising the forearms to hold attributes [130]. In sanctuaries

of male

more permanent and silent service to a god than could mortal flesh. Most of this class are from Apollo sanctuaries, the only notable exceptions being from Sounion (Poseidon), while the very few from sanctuaries of goddesses - Athena (Athens) and Hera (Samos) - do not seriously upset this pattern, and some fragmentary candidates might be from figures of deities

they are dedications offering

other types or groups. In their other function,

which may tend

as

grave markers, the kouroi

anthropomorphic (see Chapter Eight). Without pretending to portray the dead they summon up remembrance of the youth and vigour admired by their kin and friends, who are often named as donors of the monument, and now lost to them. So both usages are in a way substitute and commemorative. Only grave kouroi, and a few of them, may acknowledge variations in age, with some barely adolescent, but none more than young-mature, and none admitting by dress their calling - warriors, for instance, although the epitaph may have them 'fallen in battle'. An Archaic cemetery peopled with these intent pale figures must have been an unnerving replace cruder slabs,

to the

place.

For the appearance of a complete early kouros from the islands we may turn famous bronze statuette from Delphi [37]. In proportion and details of limbs and belt he exactly matches his more battered marble comrades [38, 39], to the

22

wc may deduce that the eadiest of them had DaedaUc heads, Hke the bronze. The head looks very Cretan, and most scholars have taken the bronze to be and

Cretan. There are no Cretan stone kouroi but the belt

bronze

is

perhaps

island studios,

a

hint that Cretan statuary skills

and the

belt

might then be

is

an old Cretan one so the

were enrolled

in the early

Cretan shyness we strong one - in religion

a concession to that

have already noted. The Crete-Delphi association was a (the worship of Apollo Delphinios) and in dedication of statues (Pindar, Pythian 5, 39—42, of wood). Crete's devotion to the dressed female type in statuary and her lack of marble may explain the absence of early kouroi in the island. Cretan artists had the tradition in statuary, the tools, and the connections with Egypt requisite for the inception of monumental marble sculpture. All they lacked was the material and it may well have been Cretans that manned the early island quarry-studios, since the islanders themselves lacked these prerequisites.

There are several different sources for our early marble kouroi, all, except the Samian and Boeotian, using Cycladic marble. There are regional differences, which probably did not emerge strongly until after 600, when local studios achieve some independence of style though still mainly dependent on island sources of stone.

fragments from Delos give a fair idea of the new type, modelled, the hair in beaded tresses [38, 39]. The Naxian colossus [60] which stood near four times hfesize, is one of the latest, with the hair spreading in realistic curled locks on to the chest, and the head, to judge from drawings, already a full oval. Thera has also yielded an important In the islands the belted

slim, small-buttocked, barely

from a cemetery rather than a sanctuary [61]. One of these wears a only marble example outside Delos but proving that the belt is not a peculiarly ApoUine feature. In Ionia Samos takes the lead with a number of

early series, belt, the

thrice-lifesize

kouroi in local marble, from the Heraion, preserved only in

fragments.

Athens enters the story around 600 with the Dipylon head [62] and its companion, the complete but far inferior New York kouros [6^] which is probably from a countryside cemetery in Attica. Here we can study in detail some characteristics of the early kouroi, though few others of this date may have been so carefully finished or are so pattern-conscious, and this is the figure whose proportions seem to have been determined by a canon of Egyptian type. Previously, anatomy patterns had been barely observed on figures, whether drawn or in the round, though ribcage, pectorals and shoulder blades were commonly worked on lifesize bronze corselets and hinted at in some figurines [46]. On the New York kouros details are designed almost as independent patterns - volute ears, beaded hair with even the knot of the fillet stylized; the Hghtly grooved and rehef patterns of the front of the body, neck and sinewy legs; the

shoulder blades, the hands, wrists, elbows, knee-caps. Individually they

are unrealistic but totally effective translations into pure pattern, not of carefully

observed anatomy, but of those

details

and groupings of pattern, each

laid

out in 23

a rigid frontal

view, which the

artist

conceives to

make up

the

whole man. But

be understood, and the sum of parts achieves monumentality less by any perceived unity than by the almost spectral hint of life, imparted by the pose and size. In execution the figure has not shrugged free from the rectangular block of stone from which it was hewn. This is clearest in the face, with the broad flat cheek. But the sharply intersecting planes of the face, especially around the eyes, and the linear patterns achieved by neat grooves, sharp or shallow, indicate the many new possibilities in rendering their organic interrelation has yet to

the body. After years of inhibiting convention or trivial

decoration, a

first

step

is

taken towards

a fully satisfactory

though

delicate

expression in stone of

view of man, of his relationship to his fellows and his gods, the acknowledgement of a rightness, restraint and proportion, which are as the Greek

applicable to conduct as to statuary, the kalon kai agathon.

The kouroi from the Poseidon temple at Sounion [64, 65] in south Attica more developed than the New York kouros. The forelocks on

slightly

hairband are

hollow-beaded tresses like wind-rippled sand. on back and stomach are more aggressively

like shells, the

Grooved anatomy

patterns

decorative, chin and forehead

The crude

are

the

more emphatic.

on the stele from Boeotia [66] show what can happen away from the major marble-working centres, with proportion and pattern badly scaled. And the kouros from Boeotia [67] with its comparatively late eggpair

shaped head and more naturally lobed ears reveals similar

head

faults

of design. The

country cousin to [62]. The kouros type was adapted for the unfinished ram-bearer from Thasos is

[68]

better, a

Parian colony),

its

hair recalling the

New

York kouros,

its

(a

sleek figure the

[6g]. Another adaptation is the stocky pair, Kleobis and by the Argives at Delphi [70]. From the front the low brows and hair bunched behind the ears seem sub-Daedalic, but from the side we notice the more natural ears, the extremely thickset bodies and tough flexed

earlier island

kouroi

Biton, dedicated

arms which, with the

traces

commemorating

of the boots they wore,

recall the

purpose of the

Argos between the twins are trivial yet some have sought to explain the more battered one as the work of an Ionian apprentice. Kleobis and Biton give us, nearly, their sculptor's name .jmedes of Argos. dedication, road.

The

their strength in pulling a chariot along the

slight differences

.

.

Korai

The marble statues of women served the same purposes as the kouroi. Rather fewer of them are demonstrably funerary (from Attica; possibly Samos, Chios and Thera) and in goddess sanctuaries they may serve Artemis (Delos, Klaros), Hera (Samos), Nymphs (Samos), Athena (Athens, Miletus), Demeter (Eleusis). Their importance in the development of Archaic Greek sculpture comes only after the period studied in this chapter, since the early marble examples are 24

wholly Dacdalic

in

dedication on Delos set

appearance. [/;, right],

The

but for

her beside the Auxerre statuette

size

earliest all

complete statue

the similarity in style

[28; 71, left) to realize

is

Nikandre's

we have only to

what

the increase in

can add in presence and monumentality. Her date, relative to Auxerre,

is

hard to determine since the raw rectangularity must be in large part due to the difficulty of working the less familiar, harder material. Closer to Auxerre in detail was an even larger kore from Samos, of which only one substantial

fragment survives [72]. This and smiilar early pieces on Samos are in imported marble but after about 600 local sources are used. For a view of the heads of these figures we turn to other Daedalic work of smaller size, then to the moulded clay heads on Corinthian vases with their more developed features and oval outline. And, since korai are rare in these years, for other female statuary to the lifesize seated figures in soft stone or the smaller figures studied in the next section.

head from Olympia

match

[73],

in general outline those

of the

latest

be from the seated Hera which, with

Temple of Hera

When we come to the sixth century a how the female features

but of limestone, shows us a

kouroi so

(Pausanias v, 17.1) and probably

the early sixth century.

The

far considered. It

appears to

standing Zeus, was the cult group in the

made

rather stark features suit

its

new temple and function.

for the size

in

Perirrhanteria

dozen seventh-century marble perirrhanteria are known [74— 7g] — shallow water basins, some with knobbed handles, supported by three or four female figures who, in most cases, stand on or beside lions, holding them by tail and lead. The women are up to one metre high. The type is derived from Syria or Cyprus, where we find dishes carried by figures or sphinxes, and deities standing on lions or lion-bases. In Greece the basins come from sanctuaries and have been found in Laconia (five), Olympia (two or more), Isthmia (near Corinth), Delphi, Rhodes, Samos, the Ptoon (Boeotia). Early dates have been proposed - early enough to make them Greece's first marble sculpture — but this is improbable. The figures are not Daedalic, but the sharp features, smooth and well-modelled bodies, and the podgy lion heads seem all characteristic of Laconia where many have been found. The material of many too is a grey marble which can pass as Laconian, but it is commonly held that some were made where they were found (Rhodes, Samos) despite the general unity of style and dissimilarity to other local work. This overall concord of style suggests a short period of production although the general form and style is repeated on some marble lamps with relief heads (which include some Daedalic) and the ensemble is recalled on the Athens Acropolis in the sixth century. The Laconian or laconizing basins need be no earlier than the last third of the seventh century. Sparta may seem a surprising home for this alternative to the Daedalic style, in marble and on such foreign-looking objects, but the concept is borrowed for

Over

a

25

smaller Daedalic objects in clay and

we may

Laconia's special links with the east and with best

shown by her

inspired

Artists

by the

east,

ivories. is

take this as further evidence for

some

lonians (Samos), otherwise

Another Laconian oddity

the kneeling goddess

in marble,

perhaps also

[80].

and authors

Contemporary

texts tell us little or

for 'statue' (later andrias, as

on

nothing about statuary. Homer has no word and agalma refers to workmanship on any

[60])

comment on the crudity of early wooden and have no real conception of the early development. At first there may have been a distinctly magical aspect to major statuary, and the Rhodian Telchines, said to have made the first images of the gods (Diodorus v, 55), were wizards who could also control the weather and change their shapes. The word kolossos, which does not necessarily imply 'colossal', could refer to a substitute for men (compare [40]). The figures of Daedalus were said to see and walk, even talk. We have met his name already, applied by modern scholars to the seventhcentury orientalizing style. 'Daidalos' means 'cunningly wrought' and there is a Daedalus creating wonders in the myth history of the Bronze Age (aeronautics with Ikaros, etc.). Many lifelike and Archaic but not primitive works were attributed to Daedalus, and when Diodorus (iv, 76) says his figures have open eyes, separate legs as if walking and arms free of the body, clearly the early stone kouroi are indicated, nothing earlier, although many alleged 'daidala are wooden. Diodorus (i, 97) also associated him with Egypt saying that his statues have the rhythnios of the Egyptian, which makes sense, and he made a famous folding stool; Egyptian furniture was introduced to Greece around 600. Many make him Cretan, Hke his Bronze Age predecessor (the two are not distinguished in the sources), which also makes sense in terms of the island's seventh-century record and possible contribution to the island kouroi. Others have him Athenian. A contemporary, Smilis of Aegina (Pausanias vii, 4) was said to have made the cult image of Hera on Samos. Of Daedalus' pupils Dipoinos and Skyllis, said to have been born in Crete, were working in the Peloponnese in the second quarter of the sixth century, and Endoios in Athens in the second half. These were real artists: Daedalus may be a personification of those early monumental styles from which their work derived, or, if the view taken here of the Delphi bronze [57] is correct, a Cretan artist who understandably acquired a reputation as teacher of the first sculptors of truly monumental works in Greece. We get hardly closer to the anonymous artists of the works which have survived. Homer knows palace craftsmen and itinerant demioergoi. In Archaic Greece an important sanctuary like Olympia might attract resident artists, as the Bronze Age palaces did, and some have seen a Laconian Geometric studio for bronzes established there. The guild or family which brought eastern fashions scale.

Later authors like Pausanias

figures

26

was certainly foreign. Within Greece the sources of stone, were inevitably at first the homes of the sculptors' studios, but we have already detected independent local styles, as in Attica, so it was possible for the individuality of an artist to be stamped on the works of a school, wherever he may have learned his craft or still have to acquire his material. Euthykartidas signed his work on Delos [36] but primarily perhaps as its .]medes' signature at Delphi we meet a proud claim of dedicator. With creation, not gainsaid by the dedicators, and the sixth century will see a growing awareness by artists of the individual quality of their work, perhaps not without to Crete before 800

especially marble,

.

some thought

.

for advertisement.

27

Clay figure from a shrine at Karphi More probably an adorant than a goddess. She wears a Minoan horns symbol on her cap, and the type is traditional in Crete, including the raised hands gesture. The feet are made separately and hung in the skirt. (Heraklion Mus.; H. 0-67) About 1 000 I

(Crete).

Clay janiform head, from Piskokcphalo (Crete). The features were painted and the conical lower part was probably for insertion in a wooden body over half lifesize. (Oxford AE 1102; H. 0295) About 900 2

3 Clay stag, from a grave in Athens, decorated in the Protogeometric style.

(Athens, Kerameikos Mus. 641; H. 0-26) (dated by context)

About 925

4 Clay centaur, found part within a tomb, part over another tomb, at Lcfkandi (Euboca). A dchberate painted nick in the right foreleg has been associated with the story that the centaur Chiron was wounded

by Herakles with an arrow, but a round so early is unexpected and we would look for more explicit statement of the action. (Eretria; H. 036) Before about 900 (dated by context) in the leg

myth

figure in the

7

Bronze warrior from Karditsa

is missing but he wears helmet, belt and 'Dipylon' shield (a light wicker or hide shield, stylized into this shape by the Geometric artist). (Athens Br. 12S31: H. 0-28) About 700

(Thessaly). His spear

6 Clay helmeted head, from the Amyklaion sanctuary (Laconia). (Athens; H. o-i 15) About 700

5 Bronze man from Olympia, from the ring handle of a tripod cauldron, on which he stood

a spear in his right hand, the lead of a horse in his left.

holding

'

(Olympia B 4600; H. 01 44) About 750

8

Bronze horse. The base is an openwork of (Berhn 313 17; H. 016) About 750-700

triangles.

9 Bronze antlered deer with flnvn and bird, from the Kabirion sanctuary near Thebes. Greek artists often show deer with antlers, into the classical period. (Boston 98.650, Pierce Fund; H. 007)

About 750-700

10 Bronze man from Thebes. The dedication by Mantiklos written in two hexameters on the thighs. 'Mantiklos offers

is

me as a tithe to Apollo of the silver bow; do you, Phoibos, give some pleasing favour in return.' (Boston 3.997; H. 020) Earlv 7th c. MavTiHXoQ Vi-'ovcScHC FCHc3o\ca opYV)pcT;>;cct

2r ^

o

Bronze helmet-maker. This is unusual for this period in having no base or signs of attachment. The 1

1

subject suggests

dedication.

a

craftsman's

(New York

42.11.42, Fletcher Fund; H. 0-052) Early 7th c.

Bronze hunter and dog attacking a lion with prey in mouth, from Samos. The helmet lends a heroic air to heroic occasion (there were no lions in the Greek islands although Homer knew their behaviour well). Beneath the base is an intaglio swastika. (Once Samos; H. o-oy) 12

its

About 700

Bronze hero fighting a centaur, from Olympia (?). Both are helmeted; he plunges a sword into

13

the monster's flank. Possibly Herakles and Nessos. (New York

17.190.2072,

Morgan

Gift;

H.

on)

About 750-700

14 Limestone head from Amnisos. eyes had been inlaid, probably in bone. (Heraklion 345; H. o-i6) 8th c.

The

15 Limestone relief from Chania. A goddess stands frontal in the gateway of her temple or city. Pairs of archers, one above the other, protect her. They wear helmets of eastern type and the horse from the attacking chariot resembles the Assyrian, somewhat geometricized. The relief may be from a building. There is a comparable scene on a bronze belt of this style from Knossos. (Chania 92; H. 039) 8th c.

16 Bronze statues (one of two female and the male) from Dreros. Probably cult images which stood on the corner basis of the 8th-c. temple of Apollo. The god's hair is worked in long hook-locks; the restoration of his arms is uncertain. The bronze sheets were pinned together over a wooden core having been hammered into shape, a technique familiar also for gold figures of this style (called sphyrelaton). The eyes had been inlaid. (Heraklion 2445-7; H. 0-40, o-8o)

About 700

1

tr:.-

1

7

Bronze

statuette

Afrati, in a deposit

from

of

the second half of the

8th c. Compare the 'Apollo' i6 especially for the head

and

hair.

(Heraklion) Late 8th

c.

i8 Bronze head vase from the Idaean Cave sanctuary of Zeus. The patterned hair, brows and shape of head are eastern. Neck and handle are restored in the drawing. (Oxford AE 2i i and Heraklion; W. 0-114) Mid-yth c.

19 Ivory girl from Athens. The largest of five similar figures in a grave dated by its pottery to

about 730. It also contained three faience lion figurines and worked bone. The figure may have scp'ed as a handle, like eastern counterparts. The proportions resemble the (clothed) Dreros figures 16. (Athens 776; H. 0-24)

20 Bronze cauldron from Olympia with beaten lion and gritFin heads and cast siren attachments. (Olympia; lip diam. about 0-65) Early 7t!i c.

21 Cast bronze griffin from a cauldron, from Olympia. A later refinement of the hammered griffins. The series continues into the 6th c.

(Olympia) Mid-yth

c.

Heads from bronze siren attachments to cauldrons, from Olympia. The imported eastern type above a Greek version. The series of these figures is of the latest 8th and early 7th c. (Olympia)

21

I

Clay plaque from Corinth. Imported from 23

Syria. Astarte, with hands to breast and loins. (Corinth MF 4039; H. O'lo) 7th c.

25 Bronze handle from Gortyn, temple of Apollo. (Heraklion 2448; H. 017)

Earlv 7th

c.

24 Clay mould (cast) from Corinth. Made locally but from an eastern original. (Corinth i; H. o-o6)

KH

7th

26 Clay plaque from Crete. The polos hat had been squashed before firing. Aphrodite (?). (Oxford AE 403; H. 0-14) Mid-7th

c.

27 Clay figure (plaque) from A.xos, sanctuary of a goddess later identified as Athena. A goddess bares her belly in a ritual, fertility gesture. c

(Chania: H. 0-13) Mid-7th

c.

A'.-*:&1

29 Limestone seated figure from Astntsi. (Heraklion 407; H. 104)

About 650-640

28

The 'Auxerre goddess', limestone, formerly Auxerre Museum, originally perhaps from

in the

Crete, hicision and traces of painted lines

on the chest, squares along the cloak border and concentric squares on the skirt. (Louvre 3098; H. 0-65) About 640-630. See also 128 indicate a coloured scale pattern

30 Limestone seated woman from Gortyn, sanctuary of 'Athena'. Traces of red paint on the belt and skirt patterns. (Heraklion 380;

H.

o-8o)

About 650-630

from Gortyn, temple ot between two naked women, wearing poloi, his hands on their shoulders. One of two similar slabs which probably stood as dado blocks at the front of the temple where there seem also to have been half-relief sphinxes (another eastern feature) in the doorway. (Heraklion 379; H. 1-50) About 630-620 31

Apollo.

Limestone

A god

relief

striding

32 Sculpture from Prinias. Sec next page

32.1

?,2?,

32-2

32.4 Limestone sculpture from a temple at Prinias. The restoration is highly problematic. The seated women face each other over a lintel carved with animals in front and perhaps behind, with frontal standing women on the underside. The lower parts of the faces of both the seated and relief figures are restored. They were set cither on the fi(;ade or over the cella door. The riders

was more probably a dado in the porch, in the eastern manner, than a crowning frieze, in the Greek manner. The horses' long legs look primitive but this is a recurrent Cretan feature for tht creatures and set low the extra length would be foreshortened. (Heraklion; H. of seated woman (231) 0-82; of frieze (232) 0-84) About 620-600 frieze later

.'•^-"^'A.

33

Lmicstone seated

woman from

Eleutherna. (Heraklion 47; H. 0-57)

About 600

I

34 Clay 'Athena' from Gortyn. She holds spear and shield, and wears a helmet, made separately. The body is

wheel-made, the face moulded. (Heraklion 18502; complete H. 0-36) About 660-650

Limestone reliefs from M\'L. ^d hove) a draws cloak over head, a gesture of modesty and rank. The reliefs must be from a building, probably a dado frieze of slabs in the Cretan-eastern manner. Other fragments are from fighting scenes and one (below) is plausibly restored as two sphinxes lifting a body, perhaps the Keres on the battlefield, but there was no certain unity of theme in the frieze. (Athens 2869; H. 0-40 and the restored fragment Athens 2870, H. of slab about 0-90) About 630 35

woman

36 Limestone relief from Malesina (Boeotia). Provincial Daedalic - the oval face and high forehead indicate a late date. Apparently to be restored as a bust only, like an eastern 'woman in the window', so probably votive. (Louvre 910; H. 034) About 600-590

MND

^

'

'

37 Bronze head from Olympia. Hollow cast, probably from a complete figure which served as a support, perhaps for a bowl (there is a hole at the crown of the head). The hair is shown by incised vertical wavy Hnes at the back but in horizontal layers at the side. The eyes were inlaid. (Karlsruhe F 1890;

H. 0-087) About 640



38 Ivory sphinx from Perachora, sanctuary of Hera Limenia. (Athens 165 19; H. o-o8) About 650

I

baring her upper girls, one tying (or untying) her girdle, 39 Ivory group m high reUcf. Two pair, baring themselves, are seen body, the other with her cloak falling from her. A similar may be the daughters of the Argive on a contemporary painted metope from Thermon. They About 630 maddened by Hera. (New York 17.1yo.73. Morgan Gift; H. 0137)

kmg

Proitos,

40 Limestone figures from Thera. The bodies arc roughly blocked out. They were found in a mass cenotaph ('Schiff's grave') dated by the pottery found in it, and may have been substitutes for bodies lost at sea or in some other disaster. (Thera; H. o-iy, o-i8) About 660-650

.>-^-Ll

73 Limestone head of Hera from Olympia, temple of Hera. There were traces of red on the hairband, and yellowish red on the hair. The ear and mass beside it suggest that she was seated on a high-backed throne. A scrap from what may be the base can be restored with a man between hons, an orientalizing composition seen in the east (with a demon) on a base from Carchemish. (Olympia; H. 0-52, over twice Ufesize) About 580

74 Pcrirrhanterion from Isthmia, sanctuary of Poseidon. The women stood on lions, holding them by lead and tail.

Much

restored. (Corinth;

Late 7th

H. 1-26 without stepped base)

c.

75 Pcrirrhanterion from Samos. (Berlin 1747; H. restored 052) Late 7th c.

76 Perirrhanterion from Olympia, figure support only. The centre support was in the form of a Doric column. (Olympia; H. 0-475). Late 7th c.

79 Perirrhanterion from Sparta. Head and handle attachment from the basin. (Sparta 1658; H. of head 0-105) Late 7th c.

77 Pcnrrhantcrion ti\.;.i kaiii (Rhodes; H. ro) Late yth c.

80

Naked goddess kneehng,

flanked by a pipes

and another figure at her other side, from Sparta. Probably a goddess of fertility or player,

childbirth (the piper

(Sparta 364; H. 0-48)

78 Perirrhanterion preserved. (Sparta;

from

W.

Sparta.

Only

052) Late 7th

c.

the lions are

drowns the About 600

cries).

Chapter Five

THE MATURING ARCHAIC STYLES to

about 530 BC

Sources Most major statuary of the Archaic period was intended either for commemoration of the dead or for dedication and decoration in a sanctuary. The grave markers and dedications betoken a degree of personal or family wealth readily comprehensible in states whose agriculture and trade remained largely in the hands of rich families supported by dependents and slaves. The quality of the dedications

was partly determined by the splendours of the

sanctuary in which they stood and which they had to match.

The more

grandiose architecture of the national sanctuaries could be financed from

Olympia. In other cities major works depended on the resources, vision and sometimes the ostentatious pride of their rulers. This is the age of 'tyrants' in many Greek cities. Their wealth and authority enforced by arms provided the impetus for major architecture and other works; and their courts, which complemented rather than suppressed the life-style of aristocratic families, themselves became a focus for the activity of artists of all sorts in a manner recalling the Bronze Age palaces and anticipating the Hellenistic kingdoms. The two prime sources for sculpture of our period were the seats of two of the most powerful 'tyrannies'. The Hera temple on Samos had already a long and distinguished history, but a new and massive temple was being built in the second quarter of the sixth century, and in the third the tyrant Polykrates commissioned many public works including a rebuilding of the temple. These are years in which the sanctuary, town and cemetery are richest in statuary recovered by excavation. In Athens the Acropolis had been devoted to religious affairs by the late 560s, a new temple had been built and the state festival of Athens, the Panathenaia, reorganized. The later tyrant Peisistratos had played some part in this, perhaps. offerings of individuals or states, as at Delphi or

He dominates,

with

his sons, the years

down to

5

10 and this

is

an extremely rich

period for sculpture and architecture on the Acropolis. While Peisistratos was

new

were mainly architectural, with their and it seems that for some of the time he and his sons shared the sacred rock with the gods and lived upon it. After his death in 527 the proliferation of dedications begins in earnest. The buildings and statues were still

alive the

accompanying

glories of the Acropolis

sculpture,

63

overthrown by the Persians in 480/479, but the returning Athenians buried the broken marble statuary and bases on the Acropohs, whence they were recovered by excavation at the end of the last century. It seems to have been an act of tidiness rather than piety on the part of the Athenians since, from the bases found, we know that at least half the dedications were bronze. Virtually no bronze statues of any size were found, nor could Xerxes have taken them all away. Some may have survived undamaged; the broken ones were perhaps melted down - broken marbles are useless. This is the richest single source for this period and tends to overweight our view of Archaic sculpture in favour of Athens, well supplemented as it is by fmds in the city cemetery and in the smaller graveyards in the Attic countryside, where many rich families lived. The Acropolis fmds also give us a vital dating point for late Archaic art although it is possible that some of the architectural sculpture found had been already discarded or replaced before the Persians arrived and at least one Archaic marble statue may have survived the Persians [135]. The circumstances of discovery of grave monuments in Attica will be discussed in Chapter Eight. Elsewhere in Greece fmds have been sporadic but plentiful, from cemeteries and sanctuaries: besides Olympia, Delos and Delphi the shrine of Apollo Ptoos should be mentioned, on a high hillside 20 km north of Thebes and the source of nearly 120 fragmentary kouroi, and the great Ionian sanctuary sites at Ephesus and Didyma. But of other cities whose wealth and importance is attested by historians we still lack any significant range of fmds (Corinth, Thebes, Sicyon, Argos, Chios), and since our evidence is so partial the attempt to identify local sculptural styles, except through minor arts where they often can be defmed, is found to be a highly speculative one. One phenomenon at least which has a historical context can be detected simply from observation of styles and signatures - the diaspora of east Greek artists from before the middle of the century on. Oppression by Lydia followed by the fall of Sardis (546) and the advance of the Persian empire to the Aegean taught many east Greeks the wisdom of seeking new homes in mainland Greece or farther west. Their influence can be traced where our evidence is fullest, in Athens, and it goes far beyond that dissemination of style which casual itinerant sculptors, commissioned or themselves seeking employment, would have effected.

In this chapter we consider first, generically, the two prime figure types, kouros and kore, then the main regional styles. The architectural sculpture and reliefs are reserved for Chapters Seven and Eight.

Kouroi and realism In the sixth century the

kouros type, with no change of pose and little in more realistic though still

proportions, proceeds inexorably towards the

64

immobile creations of the end of the century. The parts of the body become more accurately rendered. Ears are no longer volute patterns but begin to look like ears. The unnatural twist which put the forearms facing forward though the fists were turned in is properly adjusted. Patterns of muscle and sinew which had been rendered by groove and ridge are carved in subtler realistic planes and the patterns themselves take forms closer to life - a double division between ribcage and navel, not triple or more, and over the knee-caps a proper asymmetry of muscles. All this accompanies a growing skill at integrating these pattern elements into a more plausible whole, as the sculptor frees himself from the technical limitations which had imprinted on the finished statue the strictly frontal/ofile aspects in which it had been conceived, and as, in other works of sculpture (relief) and art (drawing), he begins to face the problems of relating figures to each other in action or in the ambience of a narrative. Stated in these terms sculptural progress can be measured through growing anatomical knowledge, as it is in Miss Richter's book, and it is easy to fall in with the assumption that the sculptors were deliberately striving after realistic effects. But you cannot consciously strive for a goal you do not recognize. An artist who wanted to carve or draw an ear or eye realistically had only to look across the room at his fellows and copy what he saw: he could hardly have been inhibited by the consideration that such realism was not due for another fifty years! Wholly representational art was neither understood nor sought by Archaic Greek artists, who, sculptor and painter, were observing still the old Geometric formula for composition of parts, observed individually and frontally, and were presenting images and compositions to be 'read', not compared with life. They went far along the path to achieving realism, however, not by design, not by accident, but by a sort of Natural Selection. An artist draws or carves as he has been taught. He w^ill introduce varieties of rendering in the interests of better realizing his concept of, in this case, man, through the patterns and conventional forms he has been taught. Thanks to the example of foreign arts his work already bears something of the stamp of realism — far removed, in detail at least, from the near-abstraction of the Geometric age. Those innovations which more closely approximated to nature were instinctively judged, rather than positively identified, as more effective realizations of the desired end, and with a better command of technique and appreciation of mass the product was bound to be more realistic. But the figures are still no more than effectively communicated symbols for life or live action, read part by part, figure by figure, as a poem is line by line, and another century must pass before the artist realizes that he can produce replicas of man and action, so successful as to deceive the eye into confusing art with nature for the first

time in western

art.

We observe progress, therefore, only partly in terms of anatomical accuracy. Differentiation of age in the forms of the relies

body

is

only tentatively expressed and is clearest on the grave stelai.

generally in differences of dress or pose: this

65

Expression of emotion too

relies

on complex conventions of gesture, when

it

of architectural sculpture or reliefs. In the faces we look for no more than a grimace of lust, pam or terror. The 'Archaic Smile' may have owed something to the difficulties of carving the transition from mouth to cheek (otherwise managed by a straight vertical cut beside the lips) but it was retained not because the expression was recognized as one of good cheer (inappropriate in much funerary art) but because it made the features look more alive, and it was abandoned once technique and observation combined to

comes

to the action figures

render the If

we

mouth more

acceptable

understand what

it

was

-

that

is,

realistic.

that the artists

were trying

to achieve,

and that

realism w^as almost the accidental by-product of their progress towards the most

symbols or images of their men and gods, we shall be more patient of along the way, and we shall better appreciate the quality of their achievement, especially when it is measured against the record of sculpture in the near east and Egypt, where the break-through from the conceptual to the observed in art never really happened. There was, of course, no particular reason why it should, and we admire it in Greek art for what it enabled the artists to express and what it taught later ages. The Archaic kouroi, many of them dull enough figures in their own right, teach us how the Greek artist made his way to a representational style, based primarily on the male nude, which dominated the visual arts of the western world for nearly two and a half e£fective

their mistakes

millennia.

Korai

The break with

the Daedalic korai and their foldless dress

suggest that the sixth-century kore can be regarded as a

is

so

complete

as to

new sculptural type. An

of drapery we shall see developed first in east Greece, in Chios then Samos and the Cyclades, and the sculptural styles and new modes of dress introduced to Attica to flourish in the great series of Acropolis korai. This too marks the point at which the dress patterning ceases to be mainly surface or two-dimensional decoration and is expressed in depth, making the dress as such a subject of independent interest to the artist, and at the same time leaving him freer to consider more effective modelling of the body apart from the dress, or, eventually, as it is revealed and accentuated by the dress. The progress can easily be grasped by looking at the different treatment of the lower parts of the figures interest in the pattern

[87



0-1-0].

The

comparatively simple one, in these terms, and the sculptural named, w^hich is not true of the kouroi. Few korai are demonstrably grave markers, none demonstrably deities, and most can be taken as symbols of unwearying service to the goddesses whose sanctuaries they adorn. Few are now made more than lifesize, and many are only a half or less. They stand with their left foot slightly advanced (early ones type

66

is

story

is

a

rare in Greece outside the areas

with toes

in line,

and

in east

Greece with the right foot forward

their skirts in a natural gesture first,

which

then folds and the outlines of the limbs beneath.

offering

- fruit, fowl, hare - in

gathering

first)

the sculptor exploits to display folds at

They

are often holding an

the free hand, hi the Attic series there

is

a

marked

tendency to favour either the double-diagonal effect of slung mantle and withdrawn skirt, or verticality, with symmetrical mantle and the skirt's folds undisturbed, even when clasped, rather than any combination (odd exceptions occur).

The

foot plinths are generally oval, set in blocks or occasionally stepped

and on the Acropolis there is the clearest evidence for korai mounted on columns, from the mid century on, the columns bearing Ionic or related capitals and at the end of the century hemispherical ones. Dedicatory inscriptions appear on the bases or column shafts, and in east Greece often on the dress of the bases,

figures themselves.

The development of the sixth-century korai is expressed more in treatment of drapery than of anatomy, so we must try to understand their dress. This is not always easy since its appeal to a sculptor was the pattern of folds it presented, and pattern was more important than the details of dress-making. There are no fitted garments, only rectangles of cloth, skilfully cut, buttoned or pinned, and the commonest of these for korai (rarely for men in sculpture) is the Ionic chiton. Here the cloth is stitched into a cylinder, the top partly closed wich two sets of buttons leaving room for head and arms, so that the buttons fall along the upper arm, producing a decorative splay of folds from each. A belt at the waist produces baggy sleeves below the buttons and an overfall (kolpos) of material pulled over it and generally obscuring it except on many of the earlier east Greek korai. Sculptors show the upper part of the chiton in rippling creases gathered round shoulders and breasts, the lower part in flat sweeping folds, but it is all one garment. On top may be a small himation ('mantle' here), a long rectangle fastened with buttons, not across the short sides but towards the ends of a long edge, and then usually worn like a sash, its upper edge rolled, under the left arm and over the right shoulder, so that the buttons overhe the chiton sleeve. Generally it looks as though the sculptor is simply showing the chiton buttons through the mantle, splaying folds and all gradually giving place to the vertical folds of the mantle. Often the distinction in dress is thoroughly confused. Worn thus the longer mantle ends hang from the right arm, with another gathering of folds below the Occasionally

(in

left

arm, being caught up

at

the pediment of the Apollo temple at Delphi [142])

the centre.

we

see the

mantle buttoned at both shoulders and this, if real, must be a two-piece; or there may be simply a pin or button at one shoulder leaving a short 'sleeve' at that side. A larger mantle may lie over all (epiblema), in east Greece sometimes carried over the back of the head and generally covering only the back and flanks and virtually foldless [87], but it can even be worn like a toga, more Hke a man's himation. The peplos is a heavier dress, again a simple rectangle, open or stitched at the side, belted, and folded down from the neckline with a bib-like 67

CHITON

PEPLOS

MANTLE overfall to about the waist,

pinned

at the

shoulders and so sleeveless.

century and earlier korai wear a peplos over the chiton, and in the

A few mid

fifth

century

it

will largely replace the chiton, at least as the sculptor's preferred dress for ladies.

East Greek sculpture

There

is

valuable

a

and sculptors

deceptive dearth of kouroi from east Greece but

series,

including even

some from

Samos

has yielded a

the sanctuary of the goddess Hera.

The artists did not share the mainlanders' preoccupation with pattern-anatomy, and the more fluent forms which long remain characteristic of Ionian figures 68

leave their naked males looking almost self-consciously undressed beside their

sinewy cousins from Attica and south Greece. Lcukios' dedication is a good example of this [81], followed by others, mainly fragmentary. Several heads, however, have survived, and these display a rather surprising and distinctive spherical form with the hair brushed back in a 'quiff' over the ears [82]. On many of these Ionian heads (mainly south Ionian - Samos, Miletus and down to Dorian Rhodes [8^]) the eyes are narrowed, slanting, the eyeball only lightly defmed within the lids. Whether the addition of colour would have made the heads more realistic or more other-worldly than mainland kouroi is hard to say. The spherical form is possibly one inspired by eastern sculpture (see below). On more northerly Ionian works the crown of the head is higher, even pointed, but the same hair-style may be seen, as it is on a lifesize kouros from Kyzikos on the Sea of Marmora. This is a head type which was carried into the arts of the western Mediterranean and Etruria, and it is often associated with Phocaea, whose citizens emigrated first to Corsica then Italy (Vclia). If the Ionian artists' interest did not lie in anatomy pattern we would expect to fmd it occupied with dress. That this was the case is abundantly clear from the kore series, as we shall see — indeed the easterners lead Greece in this. But they even clothe some men, rather unpleasant figures [84] whose pattern of dress resembles that of the seated figures from Didyma [94, g3]. Like them they may be the dedications of dignitaries whom they 'represent', not permanent staff for a sanctuary nor grave markers. The first intimation of the new dress patterning for korai in east Greece comes with the two large fragments in Chios [83, 86]. The lines are simply incised, radiating from the sleeve buttons in triple wavy lines, crossing decoratively rather than realistically at the back w^here the belt shows as a recessed rectangle. The next phase is well demonstrated by an important group from Samos which takes us to beyond the mid century. The folds are modelled now, often close-set and contrasted with the broad plain areas of mantle and epiblema to exploit the contrasts of texture. Cheramyes' kore [8j] is the prime example, where we have the contrast of plain epiblema, covering the back and tucked in to the belt at the front, striated chiton skirt, and the oblique folds of the mantle countered by short vertical grooves at the lower front edge. Another feature, apparent in varying degrees on other Samian korai, is the cylindrical body, splaying to the plinth where the hem is cut back to show the toes. The form is less likely to be inspired by tree-trunk sculpture than by large wheelmade figures of clay, well known in Ionia, but it is likely that her head was spherical too, like other Samian figures. This combination so closely matches Mesopotamian sculptural types which had persisted into the contemporary neo-Babylonian empire, that it is not easy to escape the conclusion that the sphere-and-cylinder forms were influenced by eastern figures, though thoroughly transformed in Greek hands, the decorative dress attracting interest in its own right while the bodies come to acknowledge the sculptors' success 69

with the naked figures of kouroi. This orientahzing phase was avoided in Attica

where

The

the early korai are hardly

more than

transvestite kouroi.

Ionian cylindrical forms are well displayed in the famous ivory priestess

Miletus [8g] where we refmement of the old spherical forms [go]; in a figure from Erythrae (opposite Chios); and in rather sleeker versions at Cyrene in Libya where the connection is harder to explain unless it is via the patronage of Sparta which was actively interested in both Samos and Cyrene in these years. We shall turn to comparable works in Athens and the islands in a moment. The remarkable group made by Geneleos [91—93] and dedicated in the Samos Heraion includes typical korai, a seated figure and a reclining one (the dedicator) which expresses the soft, boneless quality of much Ionian sixth-century sculpture, with fluent masses on to which the dress is, as it were, poured like chocolate sauce. Remembering the carving technique involved, and that this is not hand-modelled clay but chiselled marble, we can better appreciate the artist's achievement in creating these sinuous forms. The reclining figure seems a peculiarly east Greek type, represented by votives elsewhere (Myus and Didyma). The seated figure in the Geneleos

from Ephesus

[88]

and the Samian

style

is

represented

at

are better supplied with heads showing, rather later,

A notable series of oi which fifteen have survived, flanked a processional way to the temple of Apollo at Didyma, near Miletus, independent dedications by local rulers and priests (the Branchidai). Most are of men, rather over lifesize, but there are a few women late in the series, which ranges in date from about 570 to about 530. One of the earliest [94] has its head still, the spherical form familiar from Samos and Miletus. The flat overlapping folds of the himation present linear patterns similar to those of the more supple Samian. Later figures develop the dress pattern in a manner analogous to the Samian and the dedication of the Carian ruler Chares [9^] is still a very wooden precursor of a finer Samian statue, the famous Aiakes [96]. This was found in the town of Samos, not the Heraion, and if the Aiakes is father of the tyrant Polykrates it is likely to be earlier than his son's 'reign' (from 532 on). If so it shows that the new (for Ionia) observation of anatomy and distinctive corrugation of folds were already well developed in Samian sculpture in the 530s. Here, at last, the figure is conceived and rendered as a separate mass from the throne, but the pose remains static (contrast [i35]). A comparable development in the rendering of dress on korai at this time is shown by a figure from the Heraion [97] who still reveals her belt in the old manner, but whose mantle and bulgy overfall have the new corrugated folds, while the pose (still with right leg forward, however) and dress declare the new generation of Ionian korai whose influence had already been felt in Attica. The very latest of the Didyma seated figures are of just this period, with others, of women, from the cemetery at Miletus. We revert now to the islands and Attica. Two korai from the Acropolis [98, group, Phileia,

is

as rigid as

seated figures, perhaps

70

her seventh-century predecessors.

more than

fifty

originally,

treatment of dress which is quite un-Attic, but very close indeed to Samian of the Geneleos period. But one has her head, and this is very different from the Samian, being instead a high oval, rather flat-topped and small-featured. The close similarity of this head to that of the Naxian sphinx at Delphi [lOo], allowing for the creature's rather earlier date and monster eyes, suggests Naxos as the origin for the two Acropolis korai, and indicates that the island workshops at this time shared views on dress with Ionia, but kept to a distinctive local head type which is far closer to the early Attic. There is something of this style in heads of kouroi from the Cyclades - one from Thera [loi], at least for its profile and outline of features, and later even in the kouros from Melos [102] which has a slim grace quite foreign to the east Greek kouroi with which we began this section. Both Thera and Melos are Dorian islands, not Ionian, but by now race counts for nothing in affinities of style. The medial position of the Cyclades, in matters of style as of geography, finds us describing its kouroi in the section on east Greece, its later korai with Attica (below). The studios of the marble islands, Naxos and Paros, were busy still, but it IS not clear whether the 'dry, linear style' attributed by scholars to Naxos, the softer 'Ionian' to Paros, is wholly justified by the evidence. Thus, a kouros head from Naxos combines the old horizontally layered hair with forehead ringlets from which the hair is brushed back almost in a Samian manner. Finally, another dedication in the Cyclades, Delos this time, brings us back to Chios, where our account of Ionian korai began. Pliny knew of a Chian sculptor called Archermos, who was of a family of sculptors — grandfather Melas, father Mikkiades, sons Boupalos and Athenis. Archermos worked on Delos and Lesbos, he tells us, and another ancient scholar says he was the first to make a Nike (Victory) with wings. The earliest free-standing statue of a winged woman (Nike or Artemis) has been excavated on Delos [loj]. She is shown in the Archaic kneeling-runnmg pose and is stylistically datable about 550, which chimes w4th Pliny's suggested date for Archermos. Near it was found a base with an irregular cutting in its top, which could well have taken the drapery mass hanging below the Nike's legs, and with an inscription naming Archermos, Mikkiades and Melas. The figure must go with the base but the tantahzmg inscription appears to make Archermos the sculptor, Mikkiades the dedicator (as he is also for a work on Paros) and Melas possibly an ancestor or a founder hero of Chios, a poetic indication of the dedicator's home; and the lettering is of Paros, where no doubt the studio was. Scholars have seen discrepancies between the dates of the base and figure, which are not strictly valid, and have worried that such a sober peplos-wearing figure could be Ionian, or by a hand whose later probable work (or his sons') in Athens seems so different. When the French found the figure's arms after the last war she was revealed as wearing a chiton beneath her peplos, and her peplos was very gaily painted. The head certainly has httle in it to match the later Ionian figures, but gg] display a

the

i the difference in date counts for a lot, and

it is

clear

from other evidence

(clay

Clazomenae, Smyrna) did not share Samos' penchant for the spherical cranium. The Delos figure's head is readily related to island korai of 550— 540, or the 'ex-Cnidian' caryatid [2og] from Delphi (the forehead wavy hair), and seems an acceptable predecessor to later Chian korai. We may rest confident that she is the Nike of Archermos and it is easy to see how Pliny's source created the artist's sculptural ancestry from a misreading of the inscription. There is a head from the Athens Acropolis (Acr. 659) comparable with the Nike, but the base found there and signed by Archermos is later, and the work of Archermos or his sons will engage us again. Of other named Ionian sculptors Eudemos and Terpsikles are known from the Didyma statues, but the outstanding figure was Theodores of Samos, a colleague of Rhoikos in the construction of the Hera temple, and named (Pausanias) with him as the first {sic) to cast bronze statues. Diodorus makes him a son of Rhoikos and, with his brother Telekles, the exponent of the Egyptian method in measuring statues (see p. 20). His reputation was in bronze work and this brings home to us just how little we can know of the best sculpture of the period; nor can we tell what of the marble statuary on Samos might be his work or o{ his studio. The family names are confused but the jeweller and gemengraver Theodoros who worked for Polykrates is likely to be the same artist. figures) that north Ionia (Chios,

Attic sculpture

and sculptors

This is a particularly rich period for kouroi from Attic cemeteries. The pattern forms of the bodies are no less emphatic for their more skilful modelling. The earlier figures have rather distinctively high, shallow heads in profile view. The hair seems brushed back from the forehead in flame-like locks over the fillet on the Volomandra kouros [104; cf. 103], a style matched in contemporary vase painting, but on the Munich kouros [106] these locks seem part of the fillet's decoration since the spiral forehead curls are also shown. Later the heads are deeper, and on [106] the spirals spread unusually over the crown and the hair is cut short behind. But this figure's stomach has still the unnatural triple division and its back is patterned in grooves in the old manner, while others wear their hair still at shoulder length. The features of the new kouros from Merenda [iO-7;

Funerary '^7, 207a,

14,

Keratea 108 Klaros 24 Klcisthenes 157 Kleobis and Biton 24, 79; 70

22-4, 63-4, 66, 72,

74, 86, 162-5,

167-8

15, 25,

76-7, ^^-9, i53,

11-16, 22-3, 26-7, 151,

9,

Geometric 9-12, 15-16,

26, 162

Giants 187, 212

157, 163; 23-4, 267-.? 165; 1,2, 14-18, 23-j$, 43-3, 246,

Cult statues

20-1, 25-6,76, 85,

1,

1

151

Cyprus Cyrene

Gigantomachy

155, 159, 160; 199,

212

Gold 77 Gorgons 152-4, 161-2, Gortyn 14-15;

70, 160

23,

88, 170; 36, 38-60, 71, loj, 181,

26g

Delphi

9,

16,

22-7, 63-4, 71-2, 1 5 1-2, 83, 88-9,

76-7, 80, 155-60, 169:52,57, 70, 100, 127, 142, 20J-4, 2og-ij, 236

Demeter

Kittylos 163; 66

86

Harmodios and Aristogeiton

83;

143, (147)

Hektor 212 Helmet-maker

10; 11

Hephaistos 212 Hera 22, 24-6;

49, 30, 73,

Didyma

64, 69, 70, 72, 89, 161, 168; 94-3, 218-ig

Dionysermos 87; 174 Dionysos 82, 86-7, 155,

no,

194,

162, 170, 207a, 212

Dioskouroi 165; 114, 208, Dipylon head 23, 154; 62

212, 239

186, 192, 194, 196-7, 206, 211-13,

87; 169

Hermes

87, 166; 194, 200, 212

Horses

Malesina 36 Mantiklos 10

10, 80, 167, 168; 8

Hymettan

Marathon 86-7, 159; 167, 171 Marble sources 18-19, 23, 25, 27 Masks 87; 171-2

19

lasos 88, 161

Idaean Cave 12; 18

Massilian treasury 159 Megakles 232 Megarian treasury 157, 160; 213

Idas 208

Dress

Inscriptions 10, 22, 73-4, 157-8,

Ikaria 86; 170

66-9, 73, 85

164 Eastern art 11-17, 25, 66, 69, 161, 167; 19, 23, 73 Egypt 18-20, 23, 26, 66, 77, 152, 162, 165, 168 Eleusis 24, 85, 155; 202

Eleutherna 14; 33 Eltyna 246 Epe[ios 264 Ephesus 17, 64, 70, 74, 82, 169; 88, 217

Loutraki 268 Lynkeus 208 Lyons kore 73; 110, 132 Lyre 33-4 Lyre-player 16; 43, 209

Magnesia 76

Doric 151-2, 162 Dorylaion 163 Dreros 11, 14, 81; 16 13, 16,

Ionic 151 Iphidike 88

Melos 14, 71; 102 Menekrates 266 Menelaos 123, 212 meniskoi 80

Isthmia 25; 74 Ivory 12, 14-17, 26, 70, 77; 38-9, 31-4, 88, 127

Merenda 72-3, 19,

Miletus 24, 69, 70, 74, 168;

89, 90,

270

Jewellery 11-12, 14

Moirai 212

Mycenae 1

60-1,

Kalchedon

165; 248

Myus

14; 33

70, 161; 222

Kallias 133

Naxos 18-19,

Kallimachos 86, 169; 167

Eretria 156; 203

Kalydon

Eros 87 Erythrae 70, 82

Karditsa 7

Nearchos

Karphi 1 Keos 84,

Nelonides 82 Nestor 212

9; 4

75; 108a

Mikkiades 71

Epiteles 172

Euboea

190-1, 203, 207a,

83, 87

Hipponax 88 Hockey 241

9

164, 168; 207a, 244, 271

12, 32, 36, 73,

210, 218, 243, 233, 263-70

Hipparchos 157, 165;

83

Lamptrai 166; 229, 261 ^ Leanax 83 Lebadea 165 Lefkandi 4 Leopards 153-4, 167; 189 Lesbos 71, 88 Leukios 69; 81 Lions 12, 25, 154-5, 161, 167-8;

212

Herm

Laconia 25-6, 76, 165

Leikippidai 212

216, 260-1

dexiosis 164

Dodona

styles 13,

69, 161; 178, 220-1

Lampito

30-1,34

Herakles 76, 154-5, 159-61, 166;

24; 212

Dermys and

Hair

187 166; 212, 263

Kyzikos

Griffins 12, 166; 22, 264

Daedalic 11, 13-17, 21-5, 80, 151 Deer/stag 3, 9, 20j, 210 Delos 23-5, 27, 64, 71-2, 76, 85,

boy 84-9; 147 Kroisos 72; 107

164, 166;

Graces 88, 166

Cyriacus 60

165; 247, 249

Kronos Kybcle

56, 1J3, 187-8, 203, 218, 231, 262

25

9, 12,

Kos

Kritian

Glaukos 212

232

Dog

1

26

Kopai 157

266

Corinth Crete

Knossos kolossos

120

88; 144

21, 23, 71, 165; 33,

60, 71, 100, 244, 269

141

251

Nikandre 25; /i Nike 71-2, 86, 88,

156, 158, 169;

10 J, i6y, 204

Nudity 13-14,

Nymphs

Polykrates 63, 70, 72 Poseidon 22, 24; 212 Potter 82-3; 137, 141

Sphinx

Syme

Priam 187 Prinias 14, 151, 165; j2, 252

20, 22, 65, 6y

24

20-2, 37, 46-7, 73, 76, 134, 186, 214-13, 263

Proportions 20, 23, 65, 77-9, 84

Ptoon

14, 25, 64, 76, 86, 88; 68,

67

Ornithe g2

Orpheus 208

iig, i7g, 180

Tcgea 82

Rhamnus

Thebes 89, 164; g, 10, 41, 48 Themistoclean wall 164, 169;

156; 206 Tclekles 20, 72

86; 163

Paros

Samos

16-17,

63,

66,

169; 12, 4g, 30, 34, 72, 75, 81-2, 84, 87, gi-3, g6-7,

63,

76,

82-3,

153-5; 114,232 Pentelic 19

Peplos kore 75; 113, ug Perachora 14, 16; 38, 31, 267 161

87,

173-6

Satyrs 155; 201, 210, 223 Scribes 86; 164

Sicyon 76, 89, 153, 157, 164;

Sirens 12, 168; 21

Phrasikleia 73, 75; 108a

Smyrna

88, 151

Phrixos 208 Piraeus kouros 81, 85; 130 Piskokephalo 2 polos 10-11; 26, 4g, 227

Sounion

22, 24, 78; 64-3

252

Sparta 25, 70, 74, 76, 89, 78-80, 122-4, 233-4 Spata 223, 227

;

39 168, 203,

Thespiae 165

Thorwaldsen 156

Tymnes

Sicily 152, 160

Phocaea

69, 159

1

213

Treasuries 76, 151, 157; 208-13 Troy 156, 158 Tyche 88

Philippe gi

Phile 74 Phileia 70; gi

5

Totenmahl 165-6

Samothrace 166; 264 Sarpcdon 212

183, 208 Sicyonian treasury 157; 208 Siphnian treasury 80, 83, 158, 161, 169; 130, 210-12 Siphnos 87; i6g

Perirrhanteria 25-6, 167; 74-9 Perseus 89, 154

1

Theseus 87, 156, 159, 160;

68-72, 78, 83-4, 87-8, 160, 163,

Patroklos 212 Pegasi 152

Pergamum

9,

14, 23, 24, 71, 88; 40, 61, 101

Thermon 74; 113, 133

20-6,

226,

231,233,241-3

25, 69, 165; 77, S3

Sabouroffhead

6g,

223, 231, 263

Thera

235, 262

bronze

Tenea 76, 79; 121 Thasos24, 78, 152, 161, 165-6;

Rhea 187 Rhodes 14,

74-5, 88, 165-6; 230,

79, 80;

10, 72, 81; 16

Ram-bearer 16; ^5, 6g Rampin head 73; 114 Rayet head 83; 139

Paris 212

Peisistratos

Tanagra 15; 42, 66 Technique 18-20,

Tclamon

Pampha]ios 137 Pan 87 19, 71,

100,224-8

243

Pythias and Aischrion 180

13,

Olympus 158 Orchomenos 165;

1(^1; 31, 33, 44,

Talthybios 264

Proitos J9

Olive Tree pediment 155; ig8 Ops[iades 136 Olympia 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 25-6, 63-4, 76-7, 81, 89, 157, 160; 3,

16, 21, 25, 71, 77,

14,

9,

162-3,

164

Tyrants 63, 82

Vase painting

15, 25, 76, 87, 158,

169-70; 41, 23g, 267 Velanideza 164

Volomandra 72-3,

75, 85; 104

Webb head 83; 1^3 Wood 16, 18, 20, 79-80;

4g,

30

168;

Zeus

10, 16, 25, 77,

187, ig4,

211-12

156-8; 30,

:

WORLD OF ART

THE

Surveys Michael Levey Michael Levey Herbert Read Herbert Read Frank Willett David Talbot Rice

Roy C. Craven Edward Lucie-Smith Edward Lucie-Smith Bruce Arnold

Graham Reynolds Philip Rawson Paul Gnffiths

A HISTORY OF WESTERN ART A CONCISE HISTORY OF PAINTING From Giotto to Cezanne A CONCISE HISTORY OF MODERN PAINTING A CONCISE HISTORY OF MODERN SCULPTURE AFRICAN ART ISLAMIC ART A CONCISE HISTORY OF INDIAN ART EROTICISM IN WESTERN ART A CONCISE HISTORY OF FRENCH PAINTING A CONCISE HISTORY OF IRISH ART A CONCISE HISTORY OF WATERCOLOURS THE ART OF TANTRA A CONCISE HISTORY OF AVANT-GARDE MUSIC

Periods and Powell Seton Lloyd Reynold Higgins T.

G.

E.

John Boardman John Boardman Mortimer Wheeler John Beckwith David Talbot Rice Andrew Martindale Peter

and Linda Murray Linda Murray

Germain Bazin Michael Levey

Movements

PREHISTORIC ART THE ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

MINOAN AND MYCENAEAN ART GREEK ART GREEK SCULPTURE: The Archaic Penod

ROMAN

ART AND ARCHITECTURE EARLY MEDIEVAL ART ART OF THE BYZANTINE ERA

GOTHIC ART THE ART OF THE RENAISSANCE THE HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM: Italy, the North and Spain, 1500-1600

BAROQUE AND ROCOCO ROCOCO TO REVOLUTION Major Trends

William Vaughan

Timothy Hilton Phoebe Pool Edward Lucie-Smith Roger Dixon, Stefan Muthesius

Caroline

Eighteenth Century Painting

in

ROMANTIC ART THE PRE-RAPHAELITES IMPRESSIONISM

SYMBOLIST ART VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE Alastair Service EDWARDIAN ARCHITECTURE Nikolaus Pevsner THE SOURCES OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE Wolf-Dieter Dube EXPRESSIONISM Tisdall, Angelo Bozzolla FUTURISM Edward Lucie-Smith Lucy R. Lippard Adrian Henri

LATE

MODERN

:

D.

and Helen

S.

Ettlinger

Walter S. Gibson Walter S. Gibson Kathleen Raine Graham Reynolds John Russell j. P. Hodin

Timothy Hilton

DESIGN

The Visual Arts since 1945

POPART TOTAL ART:

Environments, Happenings, and Performance

Artists L.

AND

BOTTICELLI

HIERONYMUS BOSCH BRUEGEL WILLIAM BLAKE

TURNER SEURAT

EDVARD MUNCH PICASSO

WORLD OF ART

THE

Greek Sculpture The Archaic Period John Boardman 481 plates For most people there sculpture.

its

no more satisfying expression of Greek

is

influence, through

Its

the present day.

was

It

the

Rome and

the only ancient

first,

'conceptual' conventions for representing

consciously

how

art

the Renaissance,

men and

art to

break free from

might imitate nature or even improve upon

BC

to the fuller

art of the early fifth

designed for the

development

awareness of what was possible

century, are explored

art lover,

art historian

terms of styles

in

and

comprehensive range of pictures

classicist.

It

is

a

It

The

first

the eighth

representational

It

is

describes the

also provides a

for this period than

price, presenting

statues and assemblages.

it.

and regions, tracing foreign influences

and defining the contribution of native genius.

monograph, of any

in

in

handbook, which

this

in

to

animals, and to explore

stages of this discovery, from the semi-abstract beginnings

century

than

art

is felt

many

more

any other modern

unfamiliar or rarely reproduced

companion volume

to the author's

hand-

books on Athenian Black Figure Vases and Athenian Red Figure Vases: The Archaic Period and further volumes are planned.

John Boardman Art

in

is

Lincoln Professor-Elect of Classical Archaeology and

He has spent

Oxford.

several years in Greece, three of

them as

Assistant Director of the British School at Athens, and he has excavated in

Smyrna, Crete, Chios and Libya. For four years he was

a

Fellow of

Mr Boardman has

the British Academy.

archaeology of

written widely on the art and archaic Greece on excavations, on the date of the

Knossos

on Greek Burial Customs (with D.

tablets,

gejns and,

in

500

the 'World of Art Library', on Greek Art.

I-

If

in

Ave

^

New York. Ne

C. Kurtz),

on Greek

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